Publications (5)11.1 Total impact
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article describes a 1-hour behavioral intervention designed to promote female condoms and safer sex to women at a high risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The intervention includes a promotional videotape; a skills-oriented counseling session with a nurse clinician; assorted take-home items, including a videotape for men; and free supplies of female and male condoms. Designed for women ages 18 to 34 attending public STD clinics, the intervention is developed using a systematic process of formative evaluation influenced by principles of social marketing and drawing on the social cognitive theory. The effect of the intervention on female and male condom use is evaluated using a pretest-posttest design with 1,159 women. Most elements of the intervention could be replicated in settings other than STD clinics and delivered by persons other than nurse clinicians.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Differential participation and retention can bias the findings of a follow-up study. This problem was evaluated in a study of barrier contraception among women at high STD risk. The goal of this study was to identify predictors of participation and retention and determine whether they could influence study results. Six-month follow-up study of women attending STD clinics. Determinants of participation and retention were evaluated using logistic and proportional hazards models. Agreement to participate was associated with young age, black race, low education and income, older age at first intercourse, the number of lifetime partners, and STD history. Early attrition was associated with young age, non-black race, higher income, lack of interest/commitment to using the female condom, high coital frequency, no STD history, not using a birth control method at baseline, and with inconsistent condom use, high coital frequency, and pregnancy during follow up. There was little evidence that differential participation influenced the validity of the study. Differential attrition may have biased behavioral measures of intervention effectiveness, but not necessarily measures of condom use effectiveness.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to study the frequency and determinants of breakage and slippage during female and male condom use. The goal of this study was to determine condom breakage and slippage rate. We conducted a 6-month prospective follow-up study of women attending 2 sexually transmitted disease clinics. Breakage and slippage rates were computed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate baseline characteristics and time-dependent behaviors. A total of 869 women used condoms in 20,148 acts of intercourse. Breakage was less common for female condoms (0.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.05-0.21) than for male condoms (3.1%; 95% CI, 2.80-3.42). Slippage was more common for female condoms (5.6%; 95% CI, 5.10-6.13) than for male condoms (1.1%; 95% CI, 0.90-1.28). Rates significantly decreased with use and increased with number of previous failures. From first use to >15 uses, combined failure rate fell from 20% to 1.2% for female condoms (P < 0.0001) and 9% to 2.3% for male condoms (P < 0.01). Both condoms may provide good protection against sexually transmitted diseases. Experience determines success with either condom.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whereas the female condom has been evaluated in many hypothetical acceptability or short-term use studies, there is little information about its suitability for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or HIV over extended periods of time. As part of a six-month prospective follow-up study of 1,159 STD clinic patients, clients were interviewed during their initial visit, exposed to a behavioral intervention promoting condoms, given a physical examination and provided with instructions on completing a sexual diary. Potential predictors of trying the female condom were evaluated using logistic regression, and three condom-use groups (exclusive users of female condoms, exclusive users of male condoms and users of both types of condoms) were compared using multinomial regression. Among 895 women who reported having engaged in vaginal intercourse during the study period, one-half had sex with only one partner, while one-quarter each had two partners or three or more partners. A total of 731 women reported using the female condom at least once during the follow-up period--85% during the first month of follow-up. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that employed women and those with a regular sexual partner at baseline were significantly more likely to try the female condom. By the end of the follow-up period, 8% of participants had used the female condom exclusively, 15% had used the male condom exclusively, 73% had used both types of condom and 3% had used no condoms. Twenty percent of women who tried the female condom used it only once and 13% used it twice, while 20% used 5-9 female condoms and 32% used 10 or more. Consistent condom users (N=309) were predominantly users of both types of condom (75%), and were less often exclusive users of the male condom (18%) or the female condom (7%). According to a multivariate analysis, women who used the female condom exclusively or who mixed condom types were more likely to be black, were more likely to be employed and were more likely to have a regular partner than were users of the male condom. Women at risk of STDs find the female condom acceptable and will try it, and some use it consistently. Mixing use of female condoms and male condoms may facilitate consistent condom use. The female condom may improve an individual's options for risk reduction and help reduce the spread of STDs.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated a behavioral intervention designed to promote female condoms and reduce unprotected sex among women at high risk for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The effect of the intervention on barrier use was evaluated with a pretest-posttest design with 1159 female STD clinic patients. Among participants with follow-up data, 79% used the female condom at least once and often multiple times. More than one third of those who completed the study used female condoms throughout follow-up. Use of barrier protection increased significantly after the intervention, and high use was maintained during a 6-month follow-up. To account for attrition, the use of protection by all subjects was projected under 3 conservative assumptions. The initial visit and termination visit projections suggest that use increased sharply after the intervention and declined during follow-up but remained elevated compared with the baseline. Many clients of public STD clinics will try, and some will continue, to use female condoms when they are promoted positively and when women are trained to use them correctly and to promote them to their partners. A behavioral intervention that promotes both female and male condoms can increase barrier use.
University of Alabama in Huntsville
Huntsville, Alabama, United States
- College of Nursing