[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein-protein interactions are widely found in biological systems controlling diverse cellular events. Because these interactions are implicated in many diseases such as autoimmunity and cancer, regulation of protein-protein interactions provides ideal targets for drug intervention. The CD80-CD28 costimulatory pathway plays a critical role in regulation of the immune response and thus constitutes an attractive target for therapeutic manipulation of autoimmune diseases. The objective of this study is to identify small compounds disrupting these pivotal protein-protein interactions. Compounds that specifically blocked binding of CD80 to CD28 were identified using a strategy involving a cell-based scintillation proximity assay as the initial step. Secondary screening (e.g., by analyzing the direct binding of these compounds to the target immobilized on a biosensor surface) revealed that these compounds are highly selective CD80 binders. Screening of structurally related derivatives led to the identification of the chemical features required for inhibition of the CD80-CD28 interaction. In addition, the optimization process led to a 10-fold increase in binding affinity of the CD80 inhibitors. Using this approach, the authors identify low-molecular-weight compounds that specifically and with high potency inhibit the interaction between CD80 and CD28. These compounds serve as promising starting points for further development of CD80 inhibitors as potential immunomodulatory drugs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The B7 ligands CD80 and CD86 on APCs deliver either costimulatory or inhibitory signals to the T cell when interacting with their counter-receptors CD28 and CD152 (CTLA-4) on the T cell surface. Although crucial for lymphocyte regulation, the structural basis of these interactions is still not completely understood. Using multivalent presentation and conditions mimicking clustering, believed to be essential for signaling through these receptors, and by applying a combined differential mass spectrometry and structural mapping approach to these conditions, we were able to identify a putative contact area involving hydrophilic regions on both CD28 and CD80 as well as a putative CD28 oligomerization interface induced by B7 ligation. Analysis of the CD80-CD28 interaction site reveals a well-defined interface structurally distinct from that of CD80 and CD152 and thus provides valuable information for therapeutic intervention targeted at this pathway, suggesting a general approach for other receptors.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2004 · The Journal of Immunology