[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) immediate-early protein ICP0 is a transcriptional activator with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that
induces the degradation of ND10 proteins, including the promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) and Sp100. Moreover, ICP0 has
a role in the derepression of viral genomes and in the modulation of the host interferon response to virus infection. Here,
we report that ICP0 interacts with SIAH-1, a cellular E3 ubiquitin ligase that is involved in multiple cellular pathways and
is itself capable of mediating PML degradation. This novel virus-host interaction profoundly stabilized SIAH-1 and recruited
this cellular E3 ligase into ICP0-containing nuclear bodies. Moreover, SIAH-1 mediated the polyubiquitination of HSV ICP0
in vitro and in vivo. After infection of SIAH-1 knockdown cells with HSV, higher levels of ICP0 were produced, ICP0 was less ubiquitinated, and
the half-life of this multifunctional viral regulatory protein was increased. These results indicate an inhibitory role of
SIAH-1 during lytic infection by targeting ICP0 for proteasomal degradation.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CD95 receptor signals via assembly of a multi-protein complex termed death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) which triggers activation of receptor-bound caspase-8/FLICE molecules. Most cells (type II cells) depend on a mitochondrial amplification pathway to commit apoptosis upon CD95 activation. The caspase-8-binding protein FLICE-associated huge protein (FLASH) has been previously implicated in the regulation of caspase-8 activation at the DISC. However, recent findings demonstrated that FLASH is a Cajal body component and regulates progression through S-phase of the cell cycle in the nucleus. Our recent work identified FLASH as binding partner of the PML nuclear body (PML NB) constituent Sp100 and demonstrated that FLASH partially localizes to PML NBs. Upon CD95 activation FLASH exits the nucleus and translocates to mitochondria where it meets caspase-8 to promote its activation. Our findings reconcile conflicting views on FLASH localization and its role in apoptosis regulation, and suggest that CD95 signals via a nuclear pathway. Potential implications of our findings for understanding FLASH function are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caspase-8-binding protein FLICE-associated huge protein (FLASH) has been proposed to regulate death receptor CD95-induced apoptosis through facilitating caspase-8 activation at the death-inducing signaling complex. Here, we found that FLASH interacts with the PML nuclear body component Sp100 and predominantly resides in the nucleus and nuclear bodies (NBs). In response to CD95 activation, FLASH leaves the NBs and translocates into the cytoplasm where it accumulates at mitochondria. The nucleo-cytoplasmic translocation of FLASH requires CD95-induced caspase activation and is facilitated by the Crm1-dependent nuclear export pathway. Downregulation of FLASH by RNA interference or inhibition of its nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling reduced CD95-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, we show that the adenoviral anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member E1B19K traps FLASH and procaspase-8 in a ternary complex at mitochondria, thereby blocking CD95-induced caspase-8 activation. Knock-down of Sp100 potentiated CD95-activated apoptosis through enhancing nucleo-cytoplasmic FLASH translocation. In summary, our findings suggest that CD95 signals via a previously unrecognized nuclear pathway mediated by nucleo-cytoplasmic translocation of FLASH.