Kirk D Miller

National Cancer Institute (USA), 베서스다, Maryland, United States

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Publications (15)131.91 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To examine the potential contribution of the thymus to CD4+ T-lymphocyte increases in HIV-infected patients receiving intermittent interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy. Fifteen HIV-infected patients treated with antiretroviral regimens who were enrolled in a study of intermittent IL-2 therapy and were willing to undergo serial thymic computed tomography (CT) were prospectively studied. Thymic CT was performed before and approximately 6 and 12-17 months after intermittent IL-2 therapy was started. Scans were graded in a blinded manner. Changes in lymphocyte subpopulations were determined by flow cytometry. Statistically significant increases in CD4+ T lymphocytes occurred with IL-2 administration, with a preferential increase in naive relative to memory CD4+ T cells. Despite this increase in naive CD4+ T cells, overall there was a modest decrease in thymic volume observed during the study period. No correlation was found between changes in thymic volume indices and total, naive, or memory CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts. These findings demonstrate that the profound CD4+ T-lymphocyte increases seen with intermittent IL-2 administration are not associated with increases in thymic volume and more likely are due to peripheral expansion rather than increased thymic output.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2003 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
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    ABSTRACT: Osteonecrosis has been reported to occur occasionally among HIV-infected patients. The diagnosis of symptomatic osteonecrosis of the hip in two of the authors' patients, together with reports from community physicians, raised a concern that the prevalence of osteonecrosis is increasing. To determine the prevalence of osteonecrosis of the hip in asymptomatic HIV-infected patients and to identify potential risk factors associated with osteonecrosis. Survey and comparison study. The Clinical Center of the U.S. National Institutes of Health. 339 asymptomatic HIV-infected adults (of 364 asked to participate) and 118 age- and sex-matched HIV-negative volunteers enrolled between 1 June and 15 December 1999. Osteonecrosis of the hip, as documented by magnetic resonance imaging. Data from clinic records and a patient questionnaire administered before magnetic resonance imaging were used in an analysis of risk factors. A subset of patients was evaluated for hypercoagulable state. Fifteen (4.4% [95% CI, 2.5% to 7.2%]) of 339 HIV-infected participants had osteonecrosis lesions on magnetic resonance imaging, and no HIV-negative participants had similar lesions. Among HIV-infected participants, osteonecrosis occurred more frequently in those who used systemic corticosteroids, lipid-lowering agents, or testosterone; those who exercised routinely by bodybuilding; and those who had detectable levels of anticardiolipin antibodies. Patients infected with HIV have an unexpectedly high occurrence of osteonecrosis of the hip. Although screening asymptomatic patients is not warranted, HIV-infected patients with persistent groin or hip pain should be evaluated for this debilitating complication.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2002 · Annals of internal medicine
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    ABSTRACT: We retrospectively analyzed 155 urine cytology samples (78 from patients treated with indinavir; 77, no indinavir) from 90 HIV+ patients to evaluate possible association between human polyomavirus and hematuria and to describe indinavir-associated urinary cytologic findings. The CD4 count also was recorded. Variables studied included the presence of cellular viral changes consistent with polyomavirus infection (PVCs), microscopic hematuria, multinucleated cells, indinavir crystals, neutrophils, and eosinophils. Twenty-two samples (15.8%) from patients with CD4 counts of more than 200/microL (>200 x 10(6)/L) showed PVCs. Multinucleated cells, of presumed histiocytic origin based on morphologic features and selective immunocytochemical findings, were present in a higher percentage of samples from indinavir-treated patients. Neutrophils were present in a higher percentage of indinavir-treated patients. Indinavir crystals were identified in 9 samples (12%) from patients receiving indinavir The lower percentage of PVCs in HIV+ patients with high CD4 counts likely represents an indirect antipolyomavirus indinavir effect by boosting immunity. Multinucleated cells (presumably histiocytic) and acute inflammation are associated with indinavir therapy. Indinavir crystals have a characteristic fan or circular lamellate appearance. Because indinavir crystals may be associated with genitourinary disease, recognizing and reporting them is clinically relevant in HIV+ patients.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2002 · American Journal of Clinical Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to characterize the genitourinary syndromes that accompany indinavir-associated pyuria. Of 23 indinavir-treated patients with persistent pyuria, 4 had isolated interstitial nephritis, 10 had both interstitial nephritis and urothelial inflammation, 7 had isolated urothelial inflammation, and 2 had pyuria with nonspecific urinary tract inflammation. A total of 21 patients had multinucleated histiocytes identified by cytologic testing of urine specimens. Urine abnormalities resolved in all 20 patients who stopped receiving indinavir therapy. Pyuria continued in the 3 patients who continued receiving indinavir. Six patients had elevated serum creatinine levels, which returned to baseline levels when indinavir was discontinued. In conclusion, indinavir-associated pyuria was frequently associated with evidence of interstitial nephritis and/or urothelial inflammation, multinucleated histiocytes were commonly present in urine specimens, and cessation of indinavir therapy was associated with prompt resolution of urine abnormalities.
    Preview · Article · May 2002 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine if physical examination can identify avascular necrosis of the hip (AVN) in asymptomatic HIV-infected patients.Design: Prospective, blinded population studyResults: Ten of the 176 patients were positive for AVN by MRI. Four subjects had unilateral disease and six had bilateral disease. Five hips (1.4%) in four patients were indeterminate. We evaluated physical examination maneuvers both singly and in combination. Tests done singly generally provided a higher degree of specificity (67-92%) but sensitivities were lower (0-50%) with all p-values ≥0.08. Positive predictive values based on physical exam, were <17% and negative predictive values were >90% for any single test. Combining all tests gave a high sensitivity (88%) and negative predictive value (98%), but low specificity (34%) and positive predictive value (6%) with p = 0.10. Only two of 16 hips with positive MRI findings showed no abnormalities when all tests were combinedConclusions: This study establishes the limited usefulness of a detailed physical examination of the hip early in the course of AVN. Patients who test negative on physical exam are unlikely to have AVN positive by MRI. Positive findings on physical examination of the hip may help identify patients who need further evaluation by MRI based on overall clinical suspicion.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2002 · Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
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    ABSTRACT: A unique hepatitis E virus (HEV) strain was identified as the aetiological agent of acute hepatitis in a United States (US) patient who had recently returned from vacation in Thailand, a country in which HEV is endemic. Sequence comparison showed that this HEV strain was most similar, but not identical, to the swine and human HEV strains recovered in the US. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this new HEV isolate was closer to genotype 3 strains than to the genotype 1 strains common in Asia. The fact that this HEV was closely related to strains recovered in countries where HEV is not endemic and was highly divergent from Asian HEV strains raises the questions of where the patient's infection was acquired and of whether strains are geographically as localized as once thought.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2001 · Journal of General Virology
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    ABSTRACT: The ability of IL-2 to induce expansion of the CD4+ T lymphocyte pool has made it the most studied cytokine in the treatment of HIV infection. The majority of trials have used an empirical regimen of 5-day IL-2 cycles given every 8 weeks—a regimen based upon early pharmacodynamic studies and patient preference. To better define optimal duration and frequency of cycles, a randomized trial was conducted in which patients who received this “standard” regimen were compared to patients who received cycles of variable duration (based on individual patterns of cell cycle progression) and to patients who received cycles of variable frequency (based on individual CD4+ T lymphocyte responses to previous cycles). Twenty-two patients with HIV-1 infection and CD4+ T lymphocyte counts > 200 cells/mm3 were randomized to one of three treatment groups for 32 weeks of study. Eight participants received four 5-day IL-2 cycles (controls) every 8 weeks; 7 participants received four cycles of longer duration (mean 7.7-days); and 7 participants received an increased frequency of 5-day cycles (every 4.1 weeks on average). All three groups experienced significant increases in mean CD4+ T lymphocytes. However, there were no statistically significant differences in CD4+ T lymphocyte increases between the group that received longer cycles (median increase 239 cells/mm3, P = 0.78) or between the group that received more frequent cycles (median increase 511 cells/mm3, P = 0.54) and the control group (median 284 cells/mm3). HIV-1 viral loads decreased during the study period in all three groups. Our inability to demonstrate a significant advantage of increased frequency or duration of IL-2 administration provides corroborating experimental evidence for the use of an IL-2 regimen consisting of 5-day cycles administered no more frequently than every 8 weeks in future clinical trials aimed at expanding the CD4+ T lymphocyte pool.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2001 · Clinical Immunology

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2000 · AIDS PATIENT CARE and STDs
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    ABSTRACT: HAART has been associated with metabolic abnormalities (hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, alterations in cortisol metabolism) and fat redistribution. A prospective study of 26 Caucasian men (median age 43.5 years) with HIV-1 viral loads < 500 copies/ml for 12 months while on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) who interrupted treatment for a median of 7.0 weeks (range 4.9-10.3 weeks). Seventeen (65.4%) patients reported at least one fat redistribution symptom at baseline. Serum lipids, glucose and insulin levels during an oral glucose tolerance test, 24-h urinary free cortisol and 17-hydroxycorticosteroids, and anthropometric parameters were measured before HAART cessation and prior to its reinstitution. When baseline values were compared with those obtained after HAART interruption (means +/- SD), there was a significant decrease in total cholesterol (194+/-47.3 versus 159+/-29.3 mg/dl; P < 0.0001), low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (114+/-32.6 versus 96+/-24.7 mg/dl; P = 0.0013), triglycerides (261+/-244.3 versus 185+/-165.4 mg/dl; P = 0.008), and 24-hour urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (15+/-7.9 versus 5+/-2.5 mg/24 h, P < 0.0001) and a significant increase in 24-hour urinary free cortisol (45+/-34.1 versus 62+/-32.2 microg/24 h; P = 0.016). There were no significant changes in glucose or insulin levels or in anthropometric measurements. A relatively brief interruption of HAART resulted in significant improvements in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. No changes were observed in insulin resistance profiles or anthropometric measurements, perhaps because of the brief duration of HAART interruption. These results suggest that hyperlipidemia and alterations in corticosteroid metabolism in the setting of HAART are a direct drug effect that reverses with drug withdrawal. However, glucose metabolism and fat redistribution do not change over the short term.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2000 · AIDS
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    ABSTRACT: Identifying the immunologic and virologic consequences of discontinuing antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients is of major importance in developing long-term treatment strategies for patients with HIV-1 infection. We designed a trial to characterize these parameters after interruption of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in patients who had maintained prolonged viral suppression on antiretroviral drugs. Eighteen patients with CD4+ T cell counts ≥ 350 cells/μl and viral load below the limits of detection for ≥1 year while on HAART were enrolled prospectively in a trial in which HAART was discontinued. Twelve of these patients had received prior IL-2 therapy and had low frequencies of resting, latently infected CD4 cells. Viral load relapse to >50 copies/ml occurred in all 18 patients independent of prior IL-2 treatment, beginning most commonly during weeks 2–3 after cessation of HAART. The mean relapse rate constant was 0.45 (0.20 log10 copies) day−1, which was very similar to the mean viral clearance rate constant after drug resumption of 0.35 (0.15 log10 copies) day−1 (P = 0.28). One patient experienced a relapse delay to week 7. All patients except one experienced a relapse burden to >5,000 RNA copies/ml. Ex vivo labeling with BrdUrd showed that CD4 and CD8 cell turnover increased after withdrawal of HAART and correlated with viral load whereas lymphocyte turnover decreased after reinitiation of drug treatment. Virologic relapse occurs rapidly in patients who discontinue suppressive drug therapy, even in patients with a markedly diminished pool of resting, latently infected CD4+ T cells.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 1999 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To evaluate changes in architecture, viral RNA, and viral protein over 6 months in lymph nodes from retroviral-naïve HIV-infected persons before and after commencing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods: Nine antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected persons had lymph nodes excised at baseline and at 2 and 6-8 months after beginning a four-drug combination regimen containing zidovudine, lamivudine, nevirapine, and indinavir. Two patients had AIDS. Lymph nodes were examined by immunohistochemical staining for Gag p24 HIV, CD3, CD21, CD20, HAM 56, and Ki67 antigens and by in-situ hybridization (ISH) for HIV RNA and H3-histone RNA. Results: Eight of nine baseline lymph nodes showed follicular hyperplasia and germinal center and paracortical mononuclear cell activation. At 2 months, the lymph nodes from seven patients, including the AIDS patients, showed more follicular hyperplasia and activation than their baseline specimens but with decreased mononuclear cell activation. By 6 months, seven lymph nodes were less hyperplastic and activated than their corresponding 2 month specimens. Combined ISH/immunohistochemical staining of baseline lymph nodes revealed productively infected T (CD3) and B (CD20) cells and macrophages (HAM56+). HIV RNA-positive mononuclear cells were infrequent at 2 months, and rare at 6 months. HIV RNA was still associated with follicular dendritic cells (FDC) at 2 months, but not at 6 months. HIV p24-positive antigen in germinal centers persisted through all 6, and the one 8 month specimens. The baseline lymph nodes from one of the AIDS patients was involuted and T cell depleted, whereas the follow-up lymph nodes were hyperplastic with normal T cell levels. Conclusion: Follicular hyperplasia and cell activation, possibly caused by persistent viral protein in germinal centers, may help explain why HIV viremia rebounds so rapidly after the interruption of HAART. Restoration of architecture may follow the treatment of patients with AIDS who initially had involuted and CD4 cell-depleted lymph nodes.
    No preview · Article · Nov 1999 · AIDS
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence and consequences of hepatitis G virus (HGV) infection were determined in 180 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (predominantly male homosexuals) who participated in a trial that compared treatment with zidovudine versus in-terferon (IFN)-α versus the combination. HGV RNA levels were measured by branched DNA signal amplification assay. Initially, 66 (37%) had HGV RNA. Sexual transmission was the sole risk factor for infection in all but 4 subjects. Pretreatment clinical features were similar between HGV RNA-positive and -negative patients. After 6 months, only 5% treated with zidovudine became HGV RNA negative, compared with 95% who received IFN-α alone and 66% on combination therapy with low-dose IFN-α. After therapy, HGV RNA levels returned to baseline in most subjects. Thus, HGV infection is common among HIV-infectedhomosexual males but does not appear to influence clinical features in early HIV infection. HGV RNA levels are suppressed by IFN but not by zidovudine.
    Preview · Article · Nov 1999 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Multidrug antiretroviral regimens that include human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors are associated with distinct lipodystrophy, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperinsulinemia, and deposition of visceral abdominal adipose tissue. To determine whether these findings are related to abnormalities of adrenal function, we compared the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes of HIV-positive patients who had evidence of protease inhibitor-associated lipodystrophy (PIAL), control volunteers (CON), and patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS). To elucidate the metabolic consequences of the observed lipodystrophy, we measured basal serum lipids and compared glucose and insulin concentrations during an oral glucose tolerance test. Spontaneous plasma cortisol showed normal diurnal variation in PIAL. Cortisol levels were similar in CON and PIAL, and levels in these groups were less than those in CS at all times of the night or day (P < 0.005). Ovine CRH-stimulated morning plasma cortisol levels were similar in PIAL and CON. ACTH was significantly greater in PIAL than CON (P < 0.05) at 0, 15, and 30 min after CRH stimulation. Urinary free cortisol in PIAL (mean +/- SD, 76 +/- 51 nmol/day) was significant lower than those in CON (165 +/- 64 nmol/day; P < 0.001) and CS (1715 +/- 1203 nmol/day; P < 0.001). However, 17-hydroxycorticosteroid excretion was significantly greater in PIAL (43 +/- 23 micromol/day) than in CON (17 +/- 8 micromol/day; P < 0.001), although lower than that in CS (74 +/- 47 micromol/day; P < 0.01). Scatchard analysis revealed normal glucocorticoid receptor number and affinity in PIAL. Serum triglycerides were significantly greater in PIAL (6.57 +/- 5.63 mmol/L) than in CS (1.78 +/- 0.83 mmol/L; P < 0.001) or CON (1.36 +/- 0.84 mmol/L; P < 0.001). Although triglyceride levels were significantly correlated with body mass index for CON and CS, these were not correlated for PIAL. During an oral glucose tolerance test, similar glucose and insulin values were found in PIAL and CS that were greater (P < 0.05) than CON values at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. We conclude that the lipodystrophy associated with use of HIV-1 protease inhibitors is a syndrome of increased intraabdominal adiposity with concomitant dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, but without total body weight gain and is distinct from any known form of hypercortisolism. Although urinary cortisol disposition seems to be altered in HIV-infected patients who are being treated with multidrug regimens that include protease inhibitors, the decreased free cortisol and increased 17-hydroxycorticosteroid excretion appear to be unlikely explanations for the observed lipodystrophy. The cause remains to be elucidated.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 1999 · Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
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    JA Tavel · Kirk D. Miller · Henry Masur
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    ABSTRACT: In this AIDS Commentary, Drs. Tavel, Miller, and Masur of the National Institutes of Health present this compilation of clinical trials of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients, which complements two similar reviews published as AIDS Commentaries in Clinical Infectious Diseases (1995;20:1145–51 and 1996;23:15–27). Whereas the previous compilations focused on trials of nucleoside analogues, this review is based on published articles and abstracts of clinical trials of protease inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors in HIV-infected patients. The intent is to present a thorough, but not necessarily exhaustive, review of studies that have shaped our principles of antiretroviral therapy. Preference is given to clinical endpoint trials, proof-of-concept trials that have influenced the standard of care for HIV treatment, double-blind, randomized trials, and large trials with long-term patient followup. Smaller trials that address important questions are also included.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 1999 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: After the addition of the protease inhibitor indinavir to combination drug regimens for HIV-1 infection, some patients have experienced an increase in abdominal girth with symptoms of abdominal fullness, distension, or bloating. We aimed to find out whether this collection of symptoms was associated with changes in abdominal fat and whether such changes were associated with indinavir use. Abdominal computed tomography was used in ten HIV-1-positive patients who had such abdominal symptoms to measure total adipose tissue (TAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) at the umbilicus (L4 vertebral level). The VAT:TAT ratio in the ten cases was compared with that in ten HIV-1-infected patients who had been using indinavir without abdominal symptoms for at least 6 months and ten HIV-1-infected patients who were not using indinavir. The mean VAT:TAT ratios for the three groups-non-users, symptom-free indinavir users, and symptomatic indinavir users-were 0.40 (SD 0.15), 0.59 (0.18), and 0.70 (0.20), respectively (p=0.004). The VAT:TAT ratio correlated with duration of indinavir use (r=0.47, p=0.01). The mean areas of VAT for the three groups were 106 cm2 (SD 72), 141 cm2 (65) and 202 cm2 (93), respectively (p=0.03). The mean body-mass index of the groups was similar, and patients in the two indinavir groups did not gain a significant amount of weight after starting the drug. Serum triglyceride values increased after starting indinavir and correlated with VAT:TAT ratios. Our data suggest that some HIV-1-infected patients on indinavir treatment accumulate intra-abdominal fat that may cause abdominal symptoms. Recent evidence suggests that other HIV-1 protease inhibitors may be associated with changes in body-fat distribution. Larger studies of protease-inhibitor treatment are needed to investigate this association further and to investigate metabolic or endocrine mechanisms that may underlie this phenomenon.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 1998 · The Lancet
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    Kirk D. Miller · Jo Ann M. Mican · Richard T. Davey
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    ABSTRACT: We report the cases of three HIV-positive patients with solitary pulmonary nodules caused by Cryptococcus neoformans. Although human infection with C. neoformans occurs via the respiratory tract, isolated pulmonary infection in HIV-positive patients, in contrast with HIV-negative patients, has been thought to be relatively rare. When isolated pulmonary disease in mv -infected patients has been described, most of the patients have been symptomatic (symptoms have included fever, cough, and dyspnea). In addition, these patients have had diffuse interstitial infiltrates, alveolar infiltrates, or nodular infiltrates that have often been associated with hilar adenopathy and occasionally with pleural effusions. None of the patients in the previously reported series have had lesions described as small, asymptomatic, isolated pulmonary nodules.
    Preview · Article · Nov 1996 · Clinical Infectious Diseases