Kaori Endoh

Kyoritsu Women's University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (7)17.68 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We examined the protective effect of dietary folate on benzene-induced chromosomal damage in bone marrow of mice regarding folate levels in diet and tissue. Male mice were fed either a deficient, basal, or high folate diet (0, 2, or 8 mg/kg diet, respectively) for 4 wk followed by a single dose of benzene. Plasma folate levels corresponded to those of dietary intake. Meanwhile, bone marrow, erythrocyte, and liver folate were decreased to 40% in the deficient group and almost saturated in the high group. Plasma homocysteine levels negatively correlated to levels of tissue folate. Chromosomal damage, evaluated by micronucleus assay, was not affected by folate status alone but was markedly enhanced by benzene, particularly in the deficient group (P < 0.05 vs. the basal and high groups). The activities of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes did not enhance benzene metabolism in the deficient groups, indicating that enhanced chromosomal damage was solely due to the low folate status. These results suggest that a low folate status can increase the risk of benzene-induced chromosomal damage in bone marrow, but excess folate intake does not enhance protection, as it is saturated in tissue.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2007 · Nutrition and Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: In a search for substances related to the marked induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) by ginkgo biloba extract (GBE), mice were given either GBE (1000 mg kg(-1)) or fractions of GBE for 5 days. The content and activity of CYPs were induced markedly by a bilobalide-rich fraction, but not by flavonoid-rich fractions. The level of induction by the bilobalide-rich fraction was almost the same as that induced by the unfractionated GBE, suggesting that bilobalide is largely responsible for the CYPs induction. To confirm these findings, mice were given various doses of bilobalide (10.5, 21 and 42 mg kg(-1)), or GBE (1000 mg kg(-1), containing bilobalide at 42 mg kg(-1)). Treatment with bilobalide induced CYPs markedly and in a dose-dependent manner, and the level of induction was quite similar between bilobalide (42 mg kg(-1)) and GBE. Treatment with GBE and with bilobalide greatly induced pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity. These findings indicate that bilobalide is the major substance in GBE that induces hepatic CYPs.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical trials have reported the cholesterol-lowering effects of soy protein intake, but the components responsible are not known. This meta-analysis was primarily conducted to evaluate the precise effects of soy isoflavones on lipid profiles. The effects of soy protein that contains enriched and depleted isoflavones were also examined. PUBMED was searched for English-language reports of randomized controlled trials published from 1990 to 2006 that described the effects of soy protein intake in humans. Eleven studies were selected for the meta-analysis. Soy isoflavones significantly decreased serum total cholesterol by 0.10 mmol/L (3.9 mg/dL or 1.77%; P = 0.02) and LDL cholesterol by 0.13 mmol/L (5.0 mg/dL or 3.58%; P < 0.0001); no significant changes in HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol were found. Isoflavone-depleted soy protein significantly decreased LDL cholesterol by 0.10 mmol/L (3.9 mg/dL or 2.77%; P = 0.03). Soy protein that contained enriched isoflavones significantly decreased LDL cholesterol by 0.18 mmol/L (7.0 mg/dL or 4.98%; P < 0.0001) and significantly increased HDL cholesterol by 0.04 mmol/L (1.6 mg/dL or 3.00%; P = 0.05). The reductions in LDL cholesterol were larger in the hypercholesterolemic subcategory than in the normocholesterolemic subcategory, but no significant linear correlations were observed between reductions and the starting values. No significant linear correlations were found between reductions in LDL cholesterol and soy protein ingestion or isoflavone intakes. Soy isoflavones significantly reduced serum total and LDL cholesterol but did not change HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol. Soy protein that contained enriched or depleted isoflavones also significantly improved lipid profiles. Reductions in LDL cholesterol were larger in hypercholesterolemic than in normocholesterolemic subjects.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2007 · American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
  • Kaori Endoh · Masahiro Murakami · Keizo Umegaki
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    ABSTRACT: To examine how folate status in a body is influenced by oxidative stress. Mice were given total body irradiation (TBI) by X-ray, and changes in the concentration of folate were compared to those in vitamins C and E. In a time-dependent study, folate in plasma and bone marrow decreased from 5 h until 120 h post-TBI at 3 Gy. Folate in plasma and bone marrow decreased in a dose-dependent manner at 24 h. Marked decreases of vitamins C and E were also detected in bone marrow, but not in plasma even at 10 Gy of TBI. The susceptibility of plasma folate by irradiation was confirmed by an in vitro exposure study. Neither vitamins C and E nor folate were decreased in the liver by TBI. It is suggested that folate is vulnerable to oxidative stress, and folate may need to be evaluated, particularly for TBI or radiotherapy.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · International Journal of Radiation Biology
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of curcumin, a major antioxidant constituent of turmeric, on hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity in rats. Wistar rats received curcumin-containing diets (0.05, 0.5 and 5 g/kg diet) with or without injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)). The hepatic CYP content and activities of six CYP isozymes remained unchanged by curcumin treatment, except for the group treated with the extremely high dose (5 g/kg). This suggested that daily dose of curcumin does not cause CYP-mediated interaction with co-administered drugs. Chronic CCl(4) injection drastically decreased CYP activity, especially CYP2E1 activity, which is involved in the bioactivation of CCl(4), thereby producing reactive free radicals. Treatment with curcumin at 0.5 g/kg alleviated the CCl(4)-induced inactivation of CYPs 1A, 2B, 2C and 3A isozymes, except for CYP2E1. The lack of effect of curcumin on CYP2E1 damage might be related to suicidal radical production by CYP2E1 on the same enzyme. It is speculated that curcumin inhibited CCl(4)-induced secondary hepatic CYPs damage through its antioxidant properties. Our results demonstrated that CYP isozyme inactivation in rat liver caused by CCl(4) was inhibited by curcumin. Dietary intake of curcumin may protect against CCl(4)-induced hepatic CYP inactivation via its antioxidant properties, without inducing hepatic CYPs.
    No preview · Article · May 2006 · Life Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: To examine how folate status influences chromosomal damage following X-ray irradiation. In an animal study, mice were fed either a low, basal, or high folic acid diet (0, 2, or 40 mg/kg diet, respectively) for 4 weeks, and then given total body irradiation (TBI) at 0.5 Gy. In a human study, subjects were supplemented with folic acid (800 microg/day) for 2 weeks and their peripheral blood was irradiated at 0.5 Gy in vitro. Chromosomal damage was determined by micronucleus assay. In an animal study, TBI-induced chromosomal damage was higher and folate concentration was lower in the bone marrow of the low folic acid group compared to the other two diet groups. The chromosomal damage and folate concentration were comparable between the basal and high folic acid groups. TBI administered to mice decreased folate in the plasma, erythrocyte and bone marrow. In a human study, supplementation with folic acid increased plasma folate, but did not influence either plasma homocysteine or X-ray-induced chromosomal damage in lymphocytes. Low folate status increases susceptibility to X-ray-induced chromosomal damage, but excessive folic acid supplementation under normal conditions yields no further protection due to folate saturation in the target tissue.
    No preview · Article · May 2006 · International Journal of Radiation Biology
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    ABSTRACT: In previous papers, we showed that Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) induced hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity, in particular pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD; corresponding to CYP2B type) in rats, and that GBE influenced the efficacy of co-administered drugs. In this study, to clarify the nature of the induction, we examined the effects of GBE samples from different sources and some major constituents of GBE on rat hepatic CYP in vitro and in vivo. In the study in vitro, eight GBE samples dose-dependently inhibited PROD activity in microsomes prepared from GBE-treated rats, and the inhibitory ratio correlated well with the content of proanthocyanidin in the GBE samples. Moreover, among six GBE constituents examined, proanthocyanidin markedly inhibited the PROD activity. However, administration of two GBE extracts with different proanthocyanidin contents to rats induced hepatic CYP activity, including PROD, to similar extents, and proanthocyanidin alone did not induce PROD activity. Furthermore, GBE samples extracted with both acetone-water and ethanol-water showed similar induction of CYPs in rats in vivo. These results suggest that most GBE samples available in Japan induce CYPs in rats regardless of the preparation method of the GBE, and that proanthocyanidin is not responsible for the induction. Further studies will be necessary to identify the constituent(s) of GBE involved in the induction of CYPs in vivo.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2005 · Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan (Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi)