[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of submerged fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PJ69-4 on degradation of phytic acid and the oligosaccharides, raffinose and stachyose, in soybean meal (SBM). In Exp. 1, SBM fermented with S. cerevisiae strain PJ69-4 (diploid) (FSBM) was compared with SBM fermented with S. cerevisiae strain PJ69-4 transformed with the PHO5 gene (FSBMT). Compared with 15.3 g/kg in untreated SBM, FSBMT reduced phytic acid to below the minimum detectable level (MDL; 0.7 g/kg) in 3 samples and FSBM reduced phytic acid to below MDL in 2 samples and to 1.2 g/kg in a third. With regard to degradation of phytic acid, FSBMT was not superior to FSBM (P = 0.37 when using MDL as data points). In addition, total P values were not different between treatments (P = 0.12). In Exp. 2, FSBM was compared with nonfermented SBM (control). The FSBM increased total phosphorus from 6.4 ± 0.3 to 7.8 ± 0.1 g/kg (P < 0.05), and phytic acid was reduced from 15.6 ± 0.7 g/kg to below MDL (0.7 g/kg) in all samples. The FSBM also reduced both oligosaccharides to below MDL (1.0 g/kg) in all samples compared with 8.7 ± 1.4 g/kg of raffinose and 58.2 g/kg of stachyose in the control. Results of this study provided preliminary evidence that submerged fermentation of SBM with S. cerevisiae strain PJ69-4 can degrade phytic acid, raffinose, and stachyose to below detectable levels, which may provide nutritional benefits to monogastric animals, particularly weaned pigs.
Preview · Article · Oct 2013 · The Professional Animal Scientist
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to analyze particle size and amino acid concentrations in particles after milling corn and field peas. Twelve batches each of corn and peas were processed through a hammer mill (H; 3.175-mm screen) or roller mill (R) for a total of 4 treatments and 6 replications. Samples were poured onto sieves (1,000, 850, 710, 600, 425, and 300 μm) and shaken and tapped for 2 min. At the selected settings, mill type affected geometric mean diameter (P = 0.001) and geometric SD (P < 0.0001), and estimated parameters indicated that H generated particles with smaller diameters (corn-H = 600.7; peas-H = 637.5; corn-R = 759.3; peas-R = 736.2) but larger SD (corn-H = 1.75; peas-H = 1.75; corn-R = 1.64; peas-R = 1.56). Two samples per treatment were further ground to 0.5 mm, and an amino acid profile without Trp was determined. Amino acid data were analyzed as nested arrangements, with sieve opening size nested in mill type. There was no mill type effect for corn or peas, but there was a sieve opening size effect for 19 amino acids in corn and 17 in peas. Relatively high concentrations of most amino acids were found in large corn or small pea particles. Results indicated that corn and peas have similar milling characteristics with respect to particle size, but not with respect to the dispersion of amino acids among particle sizes. Losses of amino acids could occur if corn or peas are not properly ground.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · The Professional Animal Scientist
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of s.c. and i.m. administration of P.G. 600 on estrual and ovulatory responses of prepubertal gilts were investigated. One hundred eighty-four crossbred gilts between 159 and 174 d of age were assigned to receive P.G. 600 s.c. (s.c. P.G. 600) in the flank, P.G. 600 i.m. in the neck (i.m. P.G. 600), or no treatment (control). At the beginning of the study (d 0), animals were selected from a modified, open-front barn, regrouped, relocated to new pens, and exposed once daily to a mature boar to check for estrus. On d 17, ovaries were collected from all gilts and analyzed for the presence of corpora lutea (CL), cystic follicles, and cystic CL. A higher proportion of gilts expressed estrus with s.c. P.G. 600 (76%) than with i.m. P.G. 600 (52%, P < .01) or controls (15%, P < .01). The interval from initiation of treatment on d 0 to estrus was reduced (P < .01) by P.G. 600 (4.6 d) compared to controls (5.9 d), but there was no significant difference between P.G. 600 treatments. Both s.c. P.G. 600 (86%) and i.m. P.G. 600 (77%) induced more gilts to ovulate (P < .01) than controls (18%), but there was no significant difference between P.G. 600 treatments. No significant effect of treatment was detected on number of CL (17.9), number of cystic follicles (1.5), or number of cystic CL (2.1). Proportions of gilts that developed cystic follicles or cystic CL were not influenced by treatment. Results of this study indicated that s.c. administration of P.G. 600 significantly improved the induction of estrus in prepubertal gilts compared to i.m. administration.
Preview · Article · Aug 2000 · Journal of Animal Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our objective was to determine whether priming with the progestogen norgestomet for 9 d would enhance estrual and ovulatory responses of prepubertal gilts to PG600 (400 IU eCG + 200 IU hCG). Gilts (140 to 190 d old) were assigned by litter, age, and weight to one of three treatments: 1) 9 d of norgestomet implant with an injection of PG600 after implant removal on d 9 (N+PG; n = 43); 2) no implant and an injection of PG600 on d 9 (PG; n = 36); or 3) neither implant nor PG600 (control; n = 29). Beginning on d 0, gilts were exposed once daily to a boar and checked until estrus was observed or until d 45 after the start of the experiment. Ovaries were examined for number of corpora lutea (CL) after estrus or at 45 d. Greater proportions of N+PG (63%, P < .05) and PG (69%, P < .01) gilts expressed estrus than did controls (34%), but proportions did not differ between N+PG and PG (P > .10). Among gilts in estrus following treatment with N+PG or PG, 100% showed estrus within 6 d after PG600 injection. For gilts that expressed estrus within 45 d, the average age at estrus was reduced (P < .05) by PG to 172 +/- 2 d compared with 182 +/- 4 d for controls. Average age at estrus did not differ (P > . 10) between PG and N+PG (177 +/- 2 d). Greater proportions of N+PG (82%; P < .001) and PG (65%; P < .001) gilts ovulated than controls (13%), but proportions did not differ between N+PG and PG (P > .10). The number of CL (20 +/- 2) was not affected by treatment and ranged from 2 to 71. There was no increase in ovarian cysts in response to treatment. Results indicated that norgestomet before PG600 did not enhance estrus expression or ovulation compared with PG600 alone, but use of PG600 increased the proportions of gilts that expressed estrus and ovulated compared with controls.