[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a common denominative pathogenic mechanism underlying vascular and renal complications in diabetes mellitus. Endothelial NAD(P)H oxidase is a major source of vascular ROS, and it has an important role in endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesized that activation of endothelial NAD(P)H oxidase initiates and worsens the progression of diabetic nephropathy, particularly in the development of albuminuria. We used transgenic mice with endothelial-targeted overexpression of the catalytic subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase, Nox2 (NOX2TG). NOX2TG mice were crossed with Akita insulin-dependent diabetic (Akita) mice that develop progressive hyperglycemia. We compared the progression of diabetic nephropathy in Akita versus NOX2TG-Akita mice. NOX2TG-Akita mice and Akita mice developed significant albuminuria above the baseline at 6 and 10 weeks of age, respectively. Compared with Akita mice, NOX2TG-Akita mice exhibited higher levels of NAD(P)H oxidase activity in glomeruli, developed glomerular endothelial perturbations, and attenuated expression of glomerular glycocalyx. Moreover, in contrast to Akita mice, the NOX2TG-Akita mice had numerous endothelial microparticles (blebs), as detected by scanning electron microscopy, and increased glomerular permeability. Furthermore, NOX2TG-Akita mice exhibited distinct phenotypic changes in glomerular mesangial cells expressing α-smooth muscle actin, and in podocytes expressing increased levels of desmin, whereas the glomeruli generated increased levels of ROS. In conclusion, activation of endothelial NAD(P)H oxidase in the presence of hyperglycemia initiated and exacerbated diabetic nephropathy characterized by the development of albuminuria. Moreover, ROS generated in the endothelium compounded glomerular dysfunctions by altering the phenotypes of mesangial cells and compromising the integrity of the podocytes.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Laboratory Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence implicates the significance of the physical properties of the niche in influencing the behavior, growth and differentiation of stem cells. Among the physical properties, extracellular stiffness has been shown to have direct effects on fate determination in several cell types in vitro. However, little evidence exists concerning whether shifts in stiffness occur in vivo during tissue development. To address this question, we present a systematic strategy to evaluate the shift in stiffness in a developing tissue using the mouse embryonic cerebral cortex as an experimental model. We combined atomic force microscopy measurements of tissue and cellular stiffness with immunostaining of specific markers of neural differentiation to correlate the value of stiffness with the characteristic features of tissues and cells in the developing brain. We found that the stiffness of the ventricular and subventricular zones increases gradually during development. Furthermore, a peak in tissue stiffness appeared in the intermediate zone at E16.5. The stiffness of the cortical plate showed an initial increase but decreased at E18.5, although the cellular stiffness of neurons monotonically increased in association with the maturation of the microtubule cytoskeleton. These results indicate that tissue stiffness cannot be solely determined by the stiffness of the cells that constitute the tissue. Taken together, our method profiles the stiffness of living tissue and cells with defined characteristics and can therefore be utilized to further understand the role of stiffness as a physical factor that determines cell fate during the formation of the cerebral cortex and other tissues.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes mitochondrial injury and oxidative stress, and impaired mitochondria are selectively eliminated through autophagy-dependent degradation (mitophagy). We investigated whether HCV affects mitophagy in terms of mitochondrial quality control. The effect of HCV on mitophagy was examined using HCV-JFH1–infected cells and the uncoupling reagent carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone as a mitophagy inducer. In addition, liver cells from transgenic mice expressing the HCV polyprotein and human hepatocyte chimeric mice were examined for mitophagy. Translocation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin to the mitochondria was impaired without a reduction of pentaerythritol tetranitrate–induced kinase 1 activity in the presence of HCV infection both in vitro and in vivo. Coimmunoprecipitation assays revealed that Parkin associated with the HCV core protein. Furthermore, a Yeast Two-Hybrid assay identified a specific interaction between the HCV core protein and an N-terminal Parkin fragment. Silencing Parkin suppressed HCV core protein expression, suggesting a functional role for the interaction between the HCV core protein and Parkin in HCV propagation. The suppressed Parkin translocation to the mitochondria inhibited mitochondrial ubiquitination, decreased the number of mitochondria sequestered in isolation membranes, and reduced autophagic degradation activity. Through a direct interaction with Parkin, the HCV core protein suppressed mitophagy by inhibiting Parkin translocation to the mitochondria. This inhibition may amplify and sustain HCV-induced mitochondrial injury.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · American Journal Of Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The enzyme 5α-reductase catalyzes the transformation of progesterone, testosterone, and deoxycorticosterone into 5α-reduced metabolites, which are recognized as neurosteroids in the brain with variable potential neuroactivity. Two isoforms of 5α-reductase were identified in rodents, and, of these, 5α-reductase type 1 (5α-R1) is abundantly expressed in the brain. To understand the multiple influences of neurosteroids in the central nervous system, we need to know their region-specific synthesis. The present study reports the detailed localization of 5α-R1 in the adult rat cerebellum. The occurrence of 5α-R1 was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The enzyme activity was also detected by thin layer chromatography. Immunocytochemistry showed 5α-R1 immunoreactive cells in all cerebellar layers. Multiple immunolabeling revealed that 5α-R1 was mainly localized in glia, such as astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The most intense immunoreactivity for 5α-R1 was found in Bergmann glia, and the processes of these glia were associated with dendrites of both Purkinje cells and interneurons in the molecular layer. The 5α-R1 in the cerebellum was expressed consistently throughout different ages and sexes, in both gonadectomized and hypophysectomized rats. Thus, 5α-R1 may contribute to the formation and maintenance of the cerebellar neurons through 5α-reduced metabolites, which are synthesized through a complex interaction between neurons and glia.
No preview · Article · May 2014 · Journal of chemical neuroanatomy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current stem cell technologies have enabled the induction of cortical progenitors and neurons from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in vitro. To understand the mechanisms underlying the acquisition of apico-basal polarity and the formation of processes associated with the stemness of cortical cells generated in monolayer culture, here, we developed a novel in utero transplantation system based on the moderate dissociation of adherens junctions in neuroepithelial tissue. This method enables 1) the incorporation of remarkably higher numbers of grafted cells and 2) quantitative morphological analyses at single-cell resolution, including time-lapse recording analyses. We then grafted cortical progenitors induced from mouse ESCs into the developing brain. Importantly, we revealed that the mode of process extension depends on the extrinsic apico-basal polarity of the host epithelial tissue, as well as on the intrinsic differentiation state of the grafted cells. Furthermore, we successfully transplanted cortical progenitors induced from human ESCs, showing that our strategy enables investigation of the neurogenesis of human neural progenitors within the developing mouse cortex. Specifically, human cortical cells exhibit multiple features of radial migration. The robust transplantation method established here could be utilized both to uncover the missing gap between neurogenesis from ESCs and the tissue environment and as an in vivo model of normal and pathological human corticogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Stem cells and development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
To analyse the gene-expression level of claudin-7 in urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the urinary bladder, and its relationship with clinicopathological variables.
Materials and methods
This study included 68 specimens of UC of the bladder, comprising 35 with non-muscle-invasive (NMI), stage Ta–T1, and 33 with muscle-invasive (MI) tumours, T2–T4, and 26 of normal urothelium (NU). Total RNA was extracted and 1 μg was reverse transcribed using a cDNA kit. RT-PCR was conducted using SYBR Green I dye to examine the expression levels of the target gene (claudin-7) and the housekeeping gene glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Using confocal-laser scanning light microscopy, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to validate the RT-PCR data. The correlation between claudin-7 and the clinicopathological variables was assessed.
Claudin-7 was down-regulated in UC samples compared to NU samples (P < 0.001). NMI (Ta–T1) tumours had significantly higher claudin-7 expression than MI (⩾pT2) tumours (P = 0.012). There was no significant difference between patients with G1-2 tumours and those with G3 tumours (P = 0.19). There was no significant difference between patients with recurrent NMI UC and those with no recurrence (P = 0.61). IHC showed a lower expression of claudin-7 in the UC samples than NU samples, and in MI UC than in NMI UC.
These results indicate that a reduced expression of claudin-7 correlates with the invasiveness and progression of UC of the urinary bladder. Further studies are needed to validate claudin-7 as a marker for UC.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Arab Journal of Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The GABA-synthesizing enzymes glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)1 and GAD2 are universally contained in GABAergic neurons in the central nervous system of the mouse and rat. The two isoforms are almost identically expressed throughout the brain and spinal cord. By using in situ hybridization, we found that the mouse lateral striatum concentrates medium-sized projection neurons with high-level expression of GAD1, but not of GAD2, mRNA. This was confirmed with several types of riboprobe, including those directed to the 5'-noncoding, 3'-noncoding and coding regions. Immunohistochemical localization of GAD1 also revealed predominant localization of the enzyme in the same striatal region. The lateral region of the mouse striatum, harboring such neurons, is ovoid in shape and extends between interaural +4.8 and +2.8, and at lateral 2.8 and dorsoventral 2.0. This intriguing region corresponds to the area that receives afferent inputs from the primary motor and sensory cortex that are presumably related to mouth and forelimb representations. The lateral striatum is included in the basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop, and is most vulnerable to various noxious stimuli in the neurodegeneration processes involving the basal ganglia. We have confirmed elevated expression of GAD1 mRNA, but not of GAD2 mRNA, also in the rat lateral striatum. Image analysis favored the view that the regional increase is caused by elevated cellular expression, and that the greatest number of medium-sized spiny neurons were positive for GAD1 mRNA. The GAD1 mRNA distribution in the mouse lateral striatum partially resembled those of GPR155 and cannabinoid receptor type 1 mRNAs, suggesting functional cooperation in some neurons.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · European Journal of Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Excitatory synapses on dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) represent an important role in psychostimulant-induced rewarding effect. This study investigated the regulation of ryanodine receptor (RyR) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor expression in mice under intermittent methamphetamine (METH) treatment using a place preference procedure. RyR-1 and -2 significantly increased in the VTA of mice with METH-induced place preference, whereas RyR-3 showed no changes. In addition, the levels of NR1, NR2A, and NR2B subunits were increased in the VTA. The METH-induced place preference was inhibited by intracerebroventricular pretreatment with MK-801, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, and ifenprodil, a selective NR2B subunit-containing NMDA receptor antagonist, in a dose-dependent manner. Under these conditions, the increase of RyR-1 and -2 in the VTA was significantly blocked by ifenprodil. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed the colocalization of RyR-1 and -2 with NR2B subunits in dopaminergic neurons in the mouse VTA. These findings suggest that RyRs could be involved in the development of METH-induced place preference and that NR2B subunit-containing NMDA receptors in mice showing METH-induced place preference play an important role in expression of RyRs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For review there are little available data on regulatory mechanisms of ryanodine receptor (RyR) expression with cocaine treatment, though methamphetamine was reported to up-regulate RyRs in mouse brain. This study attempted to investigate regulatory mechanisms of RyR expression using the cerebral cortical neurons in primary culture intermittently exposed to a psychostimulant, cocaine. Intermittent exposure to cocaine (10 μM) significantly enhanced RyR 1 and 2 proteins and their mRNA, but not RyR 3 expression in the neurons. These cocaine-induced increases of RyR proteins and their mRNA were dose-dependently blocked by a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist (SCH23390), but not by a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist (sulpiride). These results indicate a regulatory role of dopamine D1 receptors in RyR expression bycocaine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: J. Neurochem. (2011) 118, 773–783.
Regulatory mechanisms of ryanodine receptor (RyR) expression are not well known, although methamphetamine (METH) has been reported to up-regulate RyRs in mouse brain. This study investigate regulatory mechanisms of RyR expression by dopaminergic system using the midbrain and cerebral cortical neurons in primary culture intermittently exposed to METH and dopamine receptor (DR) agonists (1 h/day, for 3 days). Intermittent METH (10 μM) exposure enhanced RyR-1 and -2 proteins and their mRNA, but not RyR-3 expression in the both types of the neurons. These METH-induced increases of RyR proteins and their mRNA were dose-dependently blocked by SCH23390 (a selective D1DR antagonist), but not a D2DR antagonist sulpiride, suggesting a regulatory role of D1DRs in RyR expression by METH in these neurons. In cerebral cortical neurons, intermittent SKF82958 (a selective D1DR agonist) exposure increased RyR-1 and -2 proteins and their mRNA, whereas quinpirole (a selective D2DR agonist) showed no effects. KT5720, a protein kinase A inhibitor, dose-dependently attenuated the METH-stimulated RyR-1 and -2 expressions in cerebral cortical neurons. METH significantly increased phosphorylation of cAMP-response element-binding protein, which was completely suppressed by SCH23390. These results indicate that RyR-1 and -2 expressions are regulated by D1DRs via the signal transduction linked to D1DRs.
Preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of Neurochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A hallmark of neurogenesis in the vertebrate brain is the apical-basal nuclear oscillation in polarized neural progenitor cells. Known as interkinetic nuclear migration (INM), these movements are synchronized with the cell cycle such that nuclei move basally during G1-phase and apically during G2-phase. However, it is unknown how the direction of movement and the cell cycle are tightly coupled. Here, we show that INM proceeds through the cell cycle-dependent linkage of cell-autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms. During S to G2 progression, the microtubule-associated protein Tpx2 redistributes from the nucleus to the apical process, and promotes nuclear migration during G2-phase by altering microtubule organization. Thus, Tpx2 links cell-cycle progression and autonomous apical nuclear migration. In contrast, in vivo observations of implanted microbeads, acute S-phase arrest of surrounding cells and computational modelling suggest that the basal migration of G1-phase nuclei depends on a displacement effect by G2-phase nuclei migrating apically. Our model for INM explains how the dynamics of neural progenitors harmonize their extensive proliferation with the epithelial architecture in the developing brain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: J. Neurochem. (2011) 118, 773–783. AbstractRegulatory mechanisms of ryanodine receptor (RyR) expression are not well known, although methamphetamine (METH) has been reported to up‐regulate RyRs in mouse brain. This study investigate regulatory mechanisms of RyR expression by dopaminergic system using the midbrain and cerebral cortical neurons in primary culture intermittently exposed to METH and dopamine receptor (DR) agonists (1 h/day, for 3 days). Intermittent METH (10 μM) exposure enhanced RyR‐1 and ‐2 proteins and their mRNA, but not RyR‐3 expression in the both types of the neurons. These METH‐induced increases of RyR proteins and their mRNA were dose‐dependently blocked by SCH23390 (a selective D1DR antagonist), but not a D2DR antagonist sulpiride, suggesting a regulatory role of D1DRs in RyR expression by METH in these neurons. In cerebral cortical neurons, intermittent SKF82958 (a selective D1DR agonist) exposure increased RyR‐1 and ‐2 proteins and their mRNA, whereas quinpirole (a selective D2DR agonist) showed no effects. KT5720, a protein kinase A inhibitor, dose‐dependently attenuated the METH‐stimulated RyR‐1 and ‐2 expressions in cerebral cortical neurons. METH significantly increased phosphorylation of cAMP‐response element‐binding protein, which was completely suppressed by SCH23390. These results indicate that RyR‐1 and ‐2 expressions are regulated by D1DRs via the signal transduction linked to D1DRs.
No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Journal of Neurochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been reported that olfactory function is impaired in patients with allergic rhinitis. However, the mechanism of olfactory dysfunction in allergic rhinitis remains poorly understood. Because of difficulties in obtaining and analyzing human olfactory mucosa due to both technical and ethical issues, an animal model needs to be established to clarify the mechanism of olfactory dysfunction in allergic rhinitis. The purpose of this study was to study olfactory function and changes in olfactory mucosa using allergic rhinitis mice.
A model of allergic rhinitis mice with olfactory dysfunction was developed by sensitizing with ovalbumin (OVA), and intranasally challenging with the same allergen. Olfactory function of mice with or without allergic rhinitis was assessed by odor detection ability test with cycloheximide and local field potential (LFP) with 1-octanal. We also evaluated histological changes in the olfactory mucosa of allergic rhinitis mice by both light and electron microscopy.
Both of odor detection ability test and LFP showed that olfactory function was impaired in mice with allergic rhinitis, but not in mice without allergic rhinitis. Histopathological findings showed prominent infiltration of eosinophils, plasma cells, neutrophils, mast cells, and macrophages in lamina propria of olfactory mucosa of mice with allergic rhinitis, although infiltration of these cells was not seen in control mice. Allergic rhinitis also increased the number and size of glands in olfactory mucosa, suggesting an elevated amount of mucin in olfactory mucosa.
This study showed for the first time that mice with allergic rhinitis have impaired olfactory function, increased size and number of olfactory glands, and infiltration of eosinophils, neutrophils, mast cells, plasma cells, and macrophages in the olfactory mucosa. This suggests that allergic reactions are seen in olfactory mucosa of mice with allergic rhinitis, and that greater olfactory gland activity is associated with olfactory dysfunction. Also, this mouse model could provide an expedient system for analyzing mechanisms of olfactory dysfunction.
No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Auris, nasus, larynx
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Within glomeruli, the initial sites of synaptic integration in the olfactory pathway, olfactory sensory axons terminate on dendrites of projection and juxtaglomerular (JG) neurons. JG cells form at least two major circuits: the classic intraglomerular circuit consisting of external tufted (ET) and periglomerular (PG) cells and an interglomerular circuit comprised of the long-range connections of short axon (SA) cells. We examined the projections and the synaptic inputs of identified JG cell chemotypes using mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the promoter for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65 kDa, 67 kDa, or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Virtually all (97%) TH+ cells are also GAD67+ and are thus DAergic-GABAergic neurons. Using a combination of retrograde tracing, whole-cell patch-clamp recording, and single-cell three-dimensional reconstruction, we show that different JG cell chemotypes contribute to distinct microcircuits within or between glomeruli. GAD65+ GABAergic PG cells ramify principally within one glomerulus and participate in uniglomerular circuits. DAergic-GABAergic cells have extensive interglomerular projections. DAergic-GABAergic SA cells comprise two subgroups. One subpopulation contacts 5-12 glomeruli and is referred to as "oligoglomerular." Approximately one-third of these oligoglomerular DAergic SA cells receive direct olfactory nerve (ON) synaptic input, and the remaining two-thirds receive input via a disynaptic ON-->ET-->SA circuit. The second population of DAergic-GABAergic SA cells also disynaptic ON input and connect tens to hundreds of glomeruli in an extensive "polyglomerular" network. Although DAergic JG cells have traditionally been considered PG cells, their interglomerular connections argue that they are more appropriately classified as SA cells.
No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostaglandin F(2alpha) is synthesized by prostaglandin F synthase, which exists in two types, prostaglandin F synthase I (PGFS I) and prostaglandin F synthase II (PGFS II). Prostaglandin F(2alpha) binds to its specific receptor, FP. Our previous immunohistochemical study showed the distinct localization of prostaglandin F synthases in rat spinal cord. PGFS I exists in neuronal somata and dendrites in the gray substance, and PGFS II exists in ependymal cells and tanycytes surrounding the central canal. Both enzymes are also present in endothelial cells of blood vessels in the white and gray substances of the spinal cord. In this study, we found that FP localizes in neuronal somata and dendrites but not in ependymal cells, tanycytes, or endothelial cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of serial sections showed the colocalization of FP and PGFS I. FP immunoreactivity was intense in spinal laminae I and II of the dorsal horn, a connection site of pain transmission, and was similar to that of PGFS I in neuronal elements. These findings suggest that prostaglandin F(2alpha) synthesized in the neuronal somata and dendrites exert an autocrine action there.
Preview · Article · Jun 2009 · The Journal of Lipid Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Olfaction is one of the chemical senses in both vertebrate and invertebrate animals essential for a variety of social behaviors. Recent molecular biological and physiological studies using optical recording have indicated elaborate mechanisms in the main olfactory bulb for processing input from olfactory receptor neurons and control of output to higher centers in the brain. The current challenge is to identify a structural basis for understanding such elaborate molecular and functional organization. Immunocytochemistry and other advanced technologies have enabled us to label bulbar neurons selectively, and they have shown that the olfactory bulb has much greater heterogeneity in chemical and structural neuronal organization and in synaptic connectivity than previously believed. This review describes the structural aspects of the main olfactory bulb of rats and summarizes the findings for its synaptic organization based on chemical coding of neurons. Current uncertainties and issues that need to be clarified in the future are also discussed.
No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Anatomical Science International