[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is a proven therapy in acute stroke. Main concerns are based on hemorrhagic complications, which are connected with microvascular integrity loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate microvascular changes after various doses of rt-PA.
Focal cerebral ischemia for 3 hours was induced using the suture model in rats and followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. Six rats received either saline, 0.9, 9, or 18 mg rtPA/kg body weight at the end of ischemia. By immunostaining of collagen type IV the density of microvessels and the total stained area in the basal ganglia and cortex was measured. Comparison of the ischemic with the non-ischemic hemisphere showed significantly less reduction of the number of microvessels in rats treated with low-dose rt-PA than in the other groups: controls 17 +/- 3% (basal ganglia), 12 +/- 7% (cortex); 0.9 mg rt-PA, 18 +/- 3%, 10 +/- 4%; 9 mg, 21 +/- 4%, 13 +/- 7%; 18 mg, 22 +/- 4%, 15 +/- 8%. A similar effect was observed on the total stained area: control 25 +/- 4% (basal ganglia), 14 +/- 7% (cortex); 0.9 mg rt-PA, 23 +/- 2%, 7 +/- 4%; 9 mg, 28 +/- 4%, 15 +/- 4%; 18 mg, 29 +/- 4%, 17 +/- 5%, p<0.001. The significant reduction of the area of infarction after low and moderate doses of rt-PA was visualized with an MAP2-antibody, and the volume was calculated by 3-D reconstruction: control, 165.2 mm 3 +/- 21%; 0.9 mg rt-PA, 102.6 mm 3 +/- 16%; 9 mg, 101.2 mm 3 +/- 17%; 18 mg, 133.0 mm 3 +/- 24%; p < 0.001.
Rats exposed to low-dose rt-PA preserved basal lamina structures, and showed smaller infarct sizes. The protective effect of low-dose rt-PA might be due to an increased microvascular patency rate.
No preview · Article · Mar 2005 · Neurological Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lesion size is an important outcome parameter in experimental stroke research. However, most methods of measuring the infarct volume in rodents either require expensive equipment or render the brain tissue unusable for further analysis. We report on an inexpensive, tissue-saving method for quantifying the infarct volume in small rodents. After 3 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and 24 h of reperfusion in male Wistar rats, the lesion was first identified using MRI with T2-weighted sequences. The infarct was then visualized in unfixed brain cryosections using microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2)-immunohistochemistry and silver infarct staining. The lesion areas detected by all three different methods completely overlapped. The infarct volume was calculated for each method from the lesion area size on serial sections and the distance between them. Significant differences in lesion size were found between the individual animals (p = 0.000056), but not between different methods (p > 0.05). MAP2 immunohistochemistry is a convenient and valid method to measure stroke lesion volume; in addition 98% of the brain tissue is saved and available for use in further histological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical analysis.
No preview · Article · Oct 2002 · Neurological Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), especially MMP-2 and MMP-9, which play an important role in ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage, we adapted a simple and rapid method for localizing gelatinase activity to a gelatin film in situ-overlay technique previously used in cancer research. Ten micrometer cryosections of rat brain from controls and animals subjected to 3 h of ischemia and 48 h of reperfusion (suture model for transient cerebral ischemia) were used. After thawing, a gelatin film with a polyester base was put on the slide, incubated for 24 h at 37 degrees C, stained with Ponceau S, and then discolored in bi-distilled water. Non-staining areas on the film corresponded to lysis zones, caused by activated MMPs. This was proven by MMP incubation at various concentrations on the plain gelatin film and pretreatment with EDTA (an MMP inhibitor), which prevents lysis zones in normal and ischemic brains. As confirmatory tests, SDS-PAGE zymography was used to define MMP activity, and also MMP-2 immunohistochemistry to detect the possibly cellular origin of MMPs. Normal rat brain exhibited a low background activity, which was visible as a light halo-like lysis zone over and around the brain. Areas in normal brain with medium MMP activity were within the white matter (corpus callosum, anterior commissure, and cerebellum). Ischemic brain exhibited high activity lysis zones within the infarcted area (detected by microtubuli associated protein-2 staining). These zones consisted of microscopically small lysis holes with a diameter of about 10-20 microm. Immunohistochemistry showed that especially microvessels expressed MMP antigen. SDS-PAGE zymography differentiated between a high level of activated MMPs in the ischemic area and a low level in the non-ischemic basal ganglia. The gelatin film in situ-overlay technique is able to localize MMP activity in ischemic rat brain tissue on a microscopic level.
No preview · Article · Jun 2002 · Journal of Neuroscience Methods