[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eligibility for anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy in most European countries is restricted to severe, active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The DAS28 score is a marker of disease severity and incorporates one of two inflammatory markers, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) or C-reactive protein. We aimed to determine the relation between genetic variants known to affect ESR and levels of ESR in patients with active RA. DNA samples were genotyped for four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs7527798 (CR1L), rs6691117 (CR1), rs10903129 (TMEM57) and rs1043879 (C1orf63). The association between SNPs and baseline ESR, baseline DAS28-ESR, and change in DAS28-ESR was evaluated. Baseline ESR was significantly associated with CR1 rs6691117 genotype (P=0.01). No correlation was identified between baseline DAS28-ESR or change in DAS28-ESR. In conclusion, genetic variation in the gene encoding CR1 may alter ESR levels but not DAS28-ESR, indicating no adjustment for CR1 genotype is required in the assessment of patients with severe active RA.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 16 July 2013; doi:10.1038/tpj.2013.26.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · The Pharmacogenomics Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the delay from the time of symptom onset to assessment by a Rheumatologist in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to determine the contributions of patient and physician dependent factors to this delay.
Data were collected from 169 consecutive patients with RA at the time of assessment by Rheumatologists working in hospitals serving an inner city population in Birmingham, UK. Dates were recorded for: (i) onset of inflammatory joint symptoms; (ii) initial assessment in primary care; and (iii) referral from primary to secondary care. (iv) initial assessment by a rheumatologist in secondary care.
The median delay from the onset of symptoms to a patient being assessed in secondary care was 23 weeks (IQR 12-54 weeks). The median delay before the patient was assessed in primary care was 12 weeks (IQR 4-28 weeks). For 96 patients (57%) more than half of the overall delay in assessment in secondary care was accounted for by a delay in assessment in primary care.
Patient dependent factors, leading to a delay in consulting primary care physicians, are the principal reasons for the delay in patients with RA being seen by Rheumatologists in our population. A considerable body of evidence demonstrates that the earlier that therapy is introduced the better the clinical outcome. Consequently it is important to understand why some patients with RA delay in seeking medical advice, in order to allow effective interventions to reduce this delay.