K. F. Harrison

University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas, United States

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Publications (13)9.48 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Autumn stockpiling is a management technique in which forage is allowed to accumulate throughout the late summer and early fall for subsequent grazing throughout the late fall and winter. Well-established stands of common and 'Tifton 44' bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] located at Fayetteville and Batesville, AR, respectively, were chosen to evaluate the effects of stockpiling initiation date (August or September) and N fertilization rate (0, 37, 74, or 111 kg N ha-1) on the canopy height and dry matter (DM) yield potential of autumn-stockpiled bermudagrass forage. Within year, DM yield increased linearly (P ≤ 0.008) with N fertilization rate at Fayetteville in 2001 and in Batesville during both years. For August initiation dates, DM yield declined linearly (P ≤ 0.007) with harvest date at both sites during both years; however, cubic responses (P ≤ 0.024) also were observed at both sites in 2000 but not (P ≥ 0.076) in 2001. For September initiation dates, DM yield exhibited less consistent patterns over harvest dates, but responses were cubic (P ≤ 0.053) over time for all four site-years. Tests of homogeneity for regressions of DM yield on canopy height for individual site-years indicated there were differences for the intercepts (P < 0.001) and linear coefficients (P < 0.001) and a tendency for the quadratic coefficients (P = 0.063) to differ. Quadratic equations are not suitable for producer use; therefore, a combined linear model for all data (N = 512) was determined, Y = 146X - 838 (P < 0.001; r2 = 0.762), which may address the need for a quick estimator of available forage.
    No preview · Article · May 2004 · Agronomy Journal
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    ABSTRACT: A 64-d grazing study was conducted with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate the impact of implant treatment on growth performance, hair score, and serum prolactin levels of steers grazing tall fescue with high (HE) or low (LE) levels of infection with the endophytic fungus Neotyphodium coenophialum. Mixed-breed steers (n = 130; 246 ± 3.5 kg initial BW) were allocated randomly to one of three HE or one of four LE pastures beginning April 13. Within each replication, one-half of the steers were implanted (IMP) with trenbolone acetate (40 mg) and estradiol (8 mg), and one-half were not implanted (NI). No implant treatment × endophyte level interactions were detected (P>0.10). Steers grazing HE had lower (P<0.01) BW gain, inferior (P<0.05) hair scores, and lower (P<0.01) serum prolactin concentrations on d 64 than those steers grazing LE. Total BW gains were greater (P=0.01) from IMP steers than from NI steers, but serum prolactin concentrations and hair scores did not differ (P>0.10) between IMP and NI steers on either d 36 or 64. When tabulated across forage and implant treatments, correlations were negative between overall BW gains and hair scores measured on d 64 (r = 0.28; P<0.01), and positive between overall BW gains and serum prolactin levels measured on d 36 and 64 (r = 0.33 and 0.43, respectively; P<0.001). Therefore, fescue toxicity symptoms were manifested in HE steers, and implanting trenbolene acetate and estradiol improved grazing BW gain, but no endophyte level × implant interactions were detected.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2001 · The Professional Animal Scientist
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    ABSTRACT: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.) were overseeded into a dormant bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) sod and harvested on six dates throughout the spring. Plant growth stage was documented for each forage on each harvest date, and harvested forages were subsequently evaluated for forage quality characteristics. Four ruminally cannulated steers were used to evaluate disappearance kinetics of nitrogen (N) by an in situ method. All forages had high concentrations of N (≥31.1gkg−1DM) throughout harvest dates in March. By 15 April, rye had reached a substantially more advanced growth stage than either wheat or oat. This trait, coupled with the concurrent taller growth habit, caused concentrations of N in rye to decline (P
    No preview · Article · Jan 2001 · Animal Feed Science and Technology
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    ABSTRACT: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), and rye (Secale cereale L.) were overseeded into a dormant bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) sod and harvested at 3-wk intervals throughout March, April, May, and early June. Plant growth stage was documented for each forage on each harvest date, and harvested forages were evaluated for forage quality characteristics. Degradation kinetics of DM and NDF for these forages were evaluated by the in situ method. Fractional degradation rates for DM and NDF in all three species were relatively rapid for vegetative forage (> or =0.086 h(-1)) but declined rapidly by the heading stage of development and stabilized thereafter. Forage quality declined and forages were more resistant to ruminal degradation as plants entered the reproductive stages of growth. Based on these findings, growth stage is an effective predictor of most characteristics of in situ DM and NDF disappearance. The relationships between these degradation parameters and growth stage were typically explained with quadratic or cubic models. Clearly, forage quality characteristics of overseeded rye deteriorated more rapidly with phenological development and growth stage than quality characteristics of overseeded wheat and oat grown in the same environment. For rye, this problem is further complicated by its accelerated phenological development. These factors combine to permit a very narrow harvest window in early spring, relative to the other cereal grains evaluated. Acceptable forage quality may persist for an extended period in wheat and oat; this suggests that producers wishing to utilize these forages may lengthen the harvest window by planting more than one species, either as a mixture or preferably in independent stands.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2000 · Journal of Dairy Science
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    ABSTRACT: Magnesium supplementation has been shown to benefit feedlot cattle and is typically added at high concentrations to mineral supplements for calves grazing wheat pasture. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of Mg-mica supplementation on performance and serum mineral concentrations of stocker calves grazing wheat pasture. Supplemental Mg was provided at 6.1 g/d of supplemental Mg/ animal, Monday through Friday. In Exp. 1, 36 mixed-breed stocker calves (243 ± 3.9 kg BW) were stratified by BW and gender and allocated randomly to one of nine groups of four animals for a 112-d grazing study. Weight gain, shrink percentage, and serum Mg, Ca, K, Cu, and Zn concentrations did not differ (P>0.10) among calves fed either weathered Mg-mica (WMM), unweathered Mg-mica (UMM), or MgO. All serum mineral concentrations were within normal physiological ranges. In Exp. 2, 64 mixed-breed stocker steers (275 ± 1.7 kg BW) were stratified by BW and allocated randomly to one of 16 groups of four animals. Weight gain during a 50-d grazing study and subsequent feedlot period did not differ (P>0.10) among calves fed either no added Mg source or WMM, UMM, or MgO. Serum Cu was higher (P<0.05), and serum Mg was lower (P<0.05), from steers fed MgO, but all serum mineral concentrations were within normal physiological ranges. Although Mg-mica is relatively high in Fe (4%), using it as a supplemental Mg source appeared to have no negative impact on growth performance or serum mineral concentrations of calves grazing wheat pasture.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2000 · The Professional Animal Scientist

  • No preview · Article · Jun 1992 · The Canadian veterinary journal. La revue veterinaire canadienne
  • D S Hubbell · A L Goetsch · D L Galloway · L A Forster · W Sun · K F Harrison
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    ABSTRACT: Beef cattle consuming bermudagrass hay were not supplemented or received a limited amount of ground corn alone or with a mix of protein meals to determine influences of concentrate supplementation on digestion and performance when the ionophore lasalocid (200 mg daily) was given. With limited feed intake, supplement treatment did not change the acetate to propionate shift in beef cows occurring with lasalocid (P < 0.06). Lasalocid did not affect sites of digestion of organic matter or nitrogen with any supplement treatment. However, lasalocid decreased (P < 0.10) ruminal digestion of neutral and acid detergent fibre. Live-weight gain by growing beef calves ingesting bermudagrass hay ad libitum was higher (P < 0.05) with than without supplementation and tended (P < 0.12) to be greater for corn plus protein meals than for corn alone. Lasalocid did not affect or interact with supplement treatment in feed intake or live-weight gain of heifers (236 kg; no growth stimulant) or steers (237 kg; treated with 200 mg progesterone and 20 mg estradiol benzoate). Lasalocid at 200 mg daily did not improve digestion characteristics or influence performance by beef cattle consuming a Basal diet of bermudagrass hay. Further, effects of lasalocid were not modulated by supplementation with concentrate, concentrate type or sex or growth stimulant usage.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1992 · Archives of Animal Nutrition
  • D S Hubbell · A L Goetsch · K F Harrison · D L Galloway · L A Forster · W Sun
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    ABSTRACT: Five crossbred beef steers (515 kg) were used in a Latin square experiment and 36 lactating Jersey cows (12 primiparous, 310 kg; 24 multiparous, 365 kg) were used in a completely randomized design study to determine effects on characteristics of digestion and lactational performance of daily alternation of the dietary level of natural protein (NP). In Experiment 1, steers were fed diets of 50% bermudagrass hay and 50% concentrate. Concentrate was approximately 18% crude protein (CP), formulated to be 60, 80 or 100% NP (varying proportions of soybean meal, urea and ground corn), and was fed at 1.5% body weight (dry matter basis). These concentrates were fed daily or ones with 60 and 100% NP were fed on alternate days. Alternate day feeding did not markedly affect characteristics of digestion, including ruminal escape of feed protein, and NP level of concentrate fed continuously had no effects either. In Experiment 2, cows were subjected to treatments similar to those in Experiment 1, and performance on d 20-40 of lactation was measured. Concentrate was given at 1 kg (as fed)/2.15 kg milk produced, yielding a dietary concentrate level of approximately 40% (dry matter basis). Alternate feeding depressed (P less than 0.05) overall milk fat percentage. Alternate feeding increased production of milk and protein and body weight of primiparous cows but caused little change with multiparous cows. Besides increasing the dietary level of concentrate, perhaps alternate feeding regimes have utility to lower milk fat level without impairing milk production. Level of NP in concentrate fed continuously did not affect performance by multiparous cows though primiparous cow performance was generally enhanced, possibly because CP intake was adequate for multiparous cows but marginal for primiparous cows. However, overall, efficiency of production of solids-corrected milk rose slightly with increasing NP.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1991 · Archives of Animal Nutrition
  • A.C Brake · A.L Goetsch · D.S Hubbell · K.L Hall · K.M Landis · K.F Harrison
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    ABSTRACT: Feed intake, digestion and performance by cattle consuming bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) ad libitum and receiving concentrate supplements were determined. In a Latin square with five Holstein steers (228 kg) fed bermudagrass hay (21.6 g nitrogen kg-1 dry matter (DM)), additions of soybean meal, urea or corn gluten and blood meals with or without urea to a ground corn-based supplement did not affect dry matter intake, digestibilities of organic matter or neutral detergent fiber. In a second experiment, crossbred beef heifers (233 kg) and steers (246 kg; zeranol implanted) were fed bermudagrass hay (18.1 g nitrogen kg-1 DM) ad libitum alone (control) or with ground corn plus dried molasses (833:167; 3.0 g kg-1 body weight) without (basal) or with soybean meal (2.5 g kg-1 body weight), urea (0.40 g kg-1 body weight) or corn gluten and blood meals (1.3 and 0.40 g kg-1 body weight, respectively) with or without urea (0.20 g kg-1 body weight; DM). Daily gain in the 84-day trial was 26% greater for basal than for control animals. Urea supplementation did not affect gain. Additions of protein meals elicited similar further increases in gain by implanted steers, but did not affect gain by non-implanted heifers.
    No preview · Article · Aug 1989 · Livestock Production Science
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    ABSTRACT: Well-established stands of 'Common' and 'Tifton 44' bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) located at Fayetteville and Batesville, AR, respectively, were chosen to evaluate the effects of stockpiling initiation date (August or September), and N fertiliza- tion rate (0, 33, 66, or 99 lb N/acre) on the dry matter (DM) yield potential of fall-stockpiled bermudagrass forage in 2000 and 2001. Harvest dates began in mid-October and continued at 3-wk intervals through late December. Soil types were a Captina silt loam at Fayetteville, and a Secesh silt loam at Batesville. Within year, DM yield increased linearly (P ≤ 0.008) with N fertilization rate at Fayetteville in 2001, and in Batesville during both years. Stockpiling initiation date, harvest date, and their interaction affected (P ≤ 0.004) DM yield. For August initiation dates, DM yield declined linearly (P ≤ 0.007) with harvest date at both sites during both years; however, cubic responses (P ≤ 0.076) also were observed in three of the four site-years. For September initiation dates, DM yield exhib- ited less consistent patterns over harvest dates. Yields of DM were greatest when stockpiling was initiated in early August, but overall yields, which ranged approximately from 90 to 4,200 lb/acre, were highly dependent on precipitation during August and early September.
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