J Schmehl

University of Tuebingen, Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Publications (51)114.3 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the distribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-labeled cells in a perfused segment of a porcine artery and to estimate the number of adherent cells by means of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Six vessel specimens (diameters between 0.8 and 1.2 cm) were placed in a bioreactor system, and 2 × 10(4) to 1 × 10(6) SPIO-labeled endothelial colony-forming cells were injected into the artery within the perfused reactor. The area of resulting signal extinctions at the inner wall of the vessels was quantified on MR images by using a high-resolution T2*-weighted sequence with a slice-by-slice approach. After imaging, the labeled cells were quantified histologically. The total iron load of each cell was 56.5 pg ± 14.4. In the applied range of 2 × 10(4) to 1 × 10(6) cells per vessel, the area of iron-induced signal extinction at the vessel wall on T2*-weighted imaging corresponded to the histologically detected cell number (r = 0.98, P < .001). A correlation between the area of signal extinction and the number of labeled cells at the vessel wall was found. This might help to evaluate dose rates in further clinical applications of intravascular cell-based therapies. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of vascular and interventional radiology: JVIR
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    ABSTRACT: Rationale of this study was to evaluate whether unfolded rib images enhance time efficiency in detection of rib fractures and time efficiency in patients with acute thoracic trauma. 51 subsequent patients with thoracic trauma underwent 64-slice computed tomography. 1mm thick axial slices were reformatted using a commercially available post-processing software application generating rotatable unfolded rib images. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by 3 readers and compared to multiplanar reformations of the original CT images. Reformation and evaluation times were recorded. 116 rib fractures were detected. The multiplanar reformation analysis yielded a sensitivity of 87.9%/93.9%/79.7% with a specificity of 97%/97%/82.2%, whilst the unfolded rib image analysis yielded a sensitivity of 94.8%/94.8%/92.2% and a specificity of 85.2/87.8%/82.4 (p=0.06/0.8/0.04) with high inter-observer agreement (k=0.79-0.85). The mean reading time for the multiplanar reformations was significantly longer (reader 1: 103.7±27.1s/reader 2: 81.8±40.6s/reader 3: 154.3±39.2s) than the evaluation of the unfolded rib images (19.4±4.9s/26.9±15.0s/49.9±18.7s; p<0.01). Concluding, the unfolded rib display reduces reading time for detection of rib fractures in acute thoracic trauma patients significantly and does not compromise the diagnostic accuracy significantly in experienced radiologists. However, unexperienced readers may profit from use of this display. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · European journal of radiology
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the effects of sirolimus, paclitaxel, and combretastatin A4 (CA4) on regulatory proteins of the cell cycle in proliferating smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Human aortic SMCs were treated with sirolimus, paclitaxel, and CA4 at 5 × 10(-9) mol/L. After 1 day, half of the cells were harvested (DAY1 group). The treatment medium of the other half was replaced with culture medium on day 4, and those cells were harvested on day 5 (DAY5 group). Cyclins D1, D2, E, and A and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p16, p21, and p27 were detected by Western blot technique. Quantification was performed by scanning densitometry of the specific bands. In the DAY1 group, treatment with sirolimus resulted in decreased intracellular levels of cyclins D2 and A (P < .05). Increased D cyclins and reduced levels of cyclins E and A (P < .05) in the DAY5 group indicated a permanent G1/S block by sirolimus. Paclitaxel led to only slight alterations of cyclin and CDK inhibitor expression (P > .05). In the DAY1 group, CA4 decreased intracellular levels of cyclins D2, E, and A (P < .05). Despite recovery effects in the DAY5 group (increase of cyclins D1, D2, and A compared with DAY1 group; P < .05), the upregulation of the CDK inhibitor p21, increased D cyclins, and decreased cyclins E and A (P < .05) are compatible with a G1 arrest. CA4 is a stronger inhibitor of the SMC cycle than sirolimus or paclitaxel and may represent an alternative for drug-eluting stents in atherosclerotic luminal stenosis. The effect of CA4 on neointima formation should be evaluated further. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of vascular and interventional radiology: JVIR
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    ABSTRACT: Direct stem cell therapies for functionally impaired tissue require a sufficient number of cells in the target region and a method for verifying the fate of the cells in the subsequent time course. In vivo MRI of iron labeled mesenchymal stem cells has been suggested to comply with these requirements. The study was conducted to evaluate proliferation, migration, differentiation and adhesion effects as well as the obtained iron load of an iron labeling strategy for mesenchymal stem cells. After injection into the porcine urethral sphincter, the labeled cells were monitored for up to six months using MRI. Mesenchymal stem cells were labeled with ferucarbotran (60/100/200 µg/mL) and ferumoxide (200 µg/mL) for the analysis of migration and viability. Phantom MR measurements were made to evaluate effects of iron labeling. For short and long term studies, the iron labeled cells were injected into the porcine urethral sphincter and monitored by MRI. High resolution anatomical images of the porcine urethral sphincter were applied for detection of the iron particles with a turbo-spin-echo sequence and a gradient-echo sequence with multiple TE values. The MR images were then compared with histological staining. The analysis of cell function after iron labeling showed no effects on proliferation or differentiation of the cells. Although the adherence increases with higher iron dose, the ability to migrate decreases as a presumed effect of iron labeling. The iron labeled mesenchymal stem cells were detectable in vivo in MRI and histological staining even six months after injection. Labeling with iron particles and subsequent evaluation with highly resolved three dimensional data acquisition allows sensitive tracking of cells injected into the porcine urethral sphincter for several months without substantial biological effects on mesenchymal stem cells. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · NMR in Biomedicine

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · RöFo - Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der R
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    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · The Journal of Urology

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · European Urology Supplements
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The standard treatment concept in patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction is neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by tumor resection in curative intent. Response evaluation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy using histopathological tumor regression grade (TRG) has been shown to be a prognostic factor in patients with esophageal cancer. Methods: We assessed the impact of the various methods of response control and their value in correlation to established prognostic factors in a cohort of patients with adenocarcinoma at the gastroesophageal junction treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Results: After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, in 56 consecutive patients with locally advanced (T2/3/4 and/or N0/N1) esophageal adenocarcinoma an oncologic tumor resection for curative intent was performed. Median follow-up was 44 months. Histopathological tumor stages were stage 0 in 10.7%, stage I in 17.9%, stage II in 21.4%, stage III in 41.1% and stage IV 8.9%. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate was 30.3%. In univariate analysis, ypN-status, histopathological tumor stage and tumor regression grade correlated significantly with overall survival (p = 0.022, p = 0.001, p = 0.035 respectively). Clinical response evaluation could not predict response and overall survival (p = 0.556, p = 0.254 respectively). Conclusion: After preoperative chemotherapy, outcomes of esophageal carcinoma are best predicted utilizing pathological tumor stage and histologic tumor regression. Clinical response assessments were not useful for guidance of treatment.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · International Journal of Surgery

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · The Journal of Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: Since the introduction of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in 1991, the endovascular therapy with newest stent grafts has assumed a prominent role in the clinical management of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) with a superior perioperative mortality of EVAR and an equivalent mid-term outcome, compared to open surgery. Newest techniques using chimney or periscope grafts and customized fenestrated and branched stent grafts allow the endovascular treatment of complex pararenal AAA. This article reviews EVAR in the treatment of AAA, evidence based results and advanced indication by newest interventional techniques and technical developments. Key points: • EVAR has become standard treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm with equivalent results to open surgery.• Technical advancements and the introduction of newest stent grafts continually expand the indication of EVAR.• Chimney- and periscope grafts as well as custom-made prothesis systems allow endovascular treatment of complex para- and suprarenal aneurysms.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · RöFo - Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der R
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To present the 12-month results of a trial investigating the effects of dual antiplatelet therapy on target lesion revascularization (TLR) after balloon angioplasty ± stenting in the femoropopliteal segment. Methods: A prospective, randomized, single-center, double-blinded and placebo-controlled clinical trial randomly assigned 40 patients to receive pre- and postinterventional therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel. Another 40 patients received the same doses of aspirin and placebo instead of clopidogrel. Clopidogrel and placebo were stopped after 6 months, and patients remained on aspirin only. At 12 months after the intervention, 36 clopidogrel patients and 37 placebo patients were reevaluated. Results: At 6 months, clopidogrel patients had significantly lower rates of TLR compared to placebo patients [2 (5%) vs. 8 (20%), p=0.04]. After stopping clopidogrel/placebo after 6 months, there was no significant difference in TLR at 12 months after treatment [9 (25%) clopidogrel vs. 12 (32.4%) placebo, p=0.35]. Mortality was 0 vs. 1 in the placebo group at 6 months (p=0.32) and 0 vs. 3 at 12 months (p=0.08). Conclusion: In contrast to the first report of a reduction in the TLR at 6 months, this advantage of dual antiplatelet therapy does not persist after stopping clopidogrel. Prolonged dual therapy (>6 months) should be considered in patients who are at high risk for restenosis.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of Endovascular Therapy
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    ABSTRACT: The portosystemic pressure gradient is an important factor defining prognosis in hepatic disease. However, noninvasive prediction of the gradient and the possible reduction by establishment of a TIPSS is challenging. A cohort of patients receiving TIPSS was evaluated with regard to imaging features of collaterals in cross-sectional imaging and the achievable reduction of the pressure gradient by establishment of a TIPSS. In this study 70 consecutive patients with cirrhotic liver disease were retrospectively evaluated. Patients received either CT or MR imaging before invasive pressure measurement during TIPSS procedure. Images were evaluated with regard to esophageal and fundus varices, splenorenal collaterals, short gastric vein and paraumbilical vein. Results were correlated with Child stage, portosystemic pressure gradient and post-TIPSS reduction of the pressure gradient. In 55 of the 70 patients TIPSS reduced the pressure gradient to less than 12mmHg. The pre-interventional pressure and the pressure reduction were not significantly different between Child stages. Imaging features of varices and portosystemic collaterals did not show significant differences. The only parameter with a significant predictive value for the reduction of the pressure gradient was the pre-TIPSS pressure gradient (r=0.8, p<0.001). TIPSS allows a reliable reduction of the pressure gradient even at high pre-interventional pressure levels and a high collateral presence. In patients receiving TIPSS the presence and the characteristics of the collateral vessels seem to be too variable to draw reliable conclusions concerning the portosystemic pressure gradient.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · European journal of radiology
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    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Endoscopy
  • FF Strobl · J Schmehl · K Brechtel · T Zeller · CD Claussen · G Tepe

    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · RöFo - Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der R

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Digestive and Liver Disease
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The efficacy of drug-eluting balloons has been demonstrated in clinical trials. The drug predominantly used is paclitaxel because of its lipophilic properties and the rapid onset of action. The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of an alternative balloon coating with rapamycin that can be applied on site. Methods: The balloon coating (3.0/18 and 3.0/12 mm, Cathy No. 4, Translumina GmbH) with rapamycin was conducted with a coating machine (Translumina GmbH). Concentrations were 2, 2 × 2, 3, and 4 %. Measurements regarding the amount of substance released to the vessel wall were carried out on explanted porcine coronaries by means of ultraviolet and visible-light spectroscopy. Inflation time varied between 30 and 120 s. The biological effect of the coating was evaluated in a porcine peripheral overstretch and stent implantation model. Results: The amount of rapamycin on the balloon surface ranged from 558 ± 108 μg for the 2 % solution to 1,441 ± 228 μg in the 4 % solution. An amount of 95 ± 63-193 ± 113 μg was released into the vessel wall. The quantitative measurements of the angiographic examinations 4 weeks after treatment revealed a reduction of diameter stenosis from 20.6 ± 17.4 % in the control group to 11.6 ± 5.5 % in the drug-eluting balloon group. Conclusion: A balloon coating with rapamycin omitting an excipient is possible with a dose-adjustable coating machine. However, the biological effects are moderate, which make further optimization of the coating process and evaluation of appropriate excipients necessary.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Comparison of dose area products (DAP) in diagnostic angiography procedures between an image intensifier (II) and a flat panel detector (FPD) angiography system and the evaluation of DAP/body mass index (BMI) dependency. Materials and methods: An image intensifier system or a flat panel detector system was used to perform 571 diagnostic angiographies (n = 328 and n = 243, respectively) of 5 different types: peripheral arterial, venous, single leg, abdominal and upper extremity. The results were retrospectively analyzed. The DAP, fluoroscopy time (t) and the number of series of the respective interventions as calculated by the respective machines was compared for all interventions and for the respective subtypes and machines. The BMI dependency was calculated separately for both machines for all interventions by subdividing the patients into 6 BMI classes defined by the WHO. Results: The average DAP for all diagnostic interventions was 1958.9 cGy×cm2 (t = 384.6 s, n = 7.85 series) for the II and 2927.4 cGy×cm2 (t = 267.4 s, n = 7.02 series) for the FPD. Group-dependent differences ranged between + 21 and + 252 % when using the FPD system. After time standardization, the respective increases were found to be 120 % for the FPD system. The DAPs increased considerably in patients with higher BMIs (766.7 cGy × cm2 - 6892.6 cGy × cm2, II machine, 950.5 cGy × cm2 - 12 487.7 cGy × cm2, FPD machine) with a greater DAP gain seen for the FPD. The average duration of the interventions was higher using the II machine. Conclusion: The use of an FPD system led to higher DAP values compared to the II system in diagnostic angiographic procedures. In addition, increased BMI values led to higher DAPs, especially for the FPD machine. However, the average fluoroscopy times were shorter.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · RöFo - Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der R
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    ABSTRACT: Background Sufficient radiopacity of stents is a prerequisite for safe interventions and minimization of the radiation dose for the patient and the interventionist. Modern nitinol stents are considered less radiopaque compared to formerly used stents.PurposeTo evaluate the objective detection rate (ODR) and the subjective radiopacity score (SRS) of four self-expanding nitinol stents with their markers on a phantom human pelvis.Material and Methods We evaluated the ODR (as a percentage of correctly identified stents) and the SRS (on a scale from 0 = not visible to 4 = excellent visibility) for four self-expanding nitinol stents (SinusSuperflex, SMART, Luminexx, Zilver) with 8 mm diameter and 40 mm length. Stents were placed on a phantom human pelvis and images of the stents were taken in four different positions (right and left lumbosacral joint and near the right and left limbus acetabuli) using the following modes: spotfilm, pulsed fluoroscopy (4, 7.5, 15, and 30 pulses/min) and at three different digital magnification modes. Dose area products (DAPs) were assessed.ResultsODR and SRS, respectively, were significantly increased for the SMART stent compared to all other tested stents (P < 0.05): SMART 93.53% and 2.43, SinusSuperflex 90.81% and 2.21, Luminexx 90.39% and 2.20, and Zilver 89.28% and 2.21. ODR was significantly reduced in position 3 where the bone overlap was more pronounced for all stents (detection rates 77.14-79.56%). An increase in magnification significantly improved the ODR and SRS for all stents (70.33-99.25% and 1.07-3.28, respectively, P < 0.05). Increased pulsing frequency did not improve the ODR of the various stents but did increase the DAP.Conclusion The SMART stent had the best overall performance. In the presence of bone overlap, all self-expanding nitinol stents had poor results. Increased pulsing frequency did not improve ODR or SRS but did increase the DAP. Use of digital magnification modes had no effect on DAP increasing ODR and SRS.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Acta Radiologica
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the initial tumour response after one, respectively, two transarterial chemoembolizations (TACE) with drug-eluting (DC) beads in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A total of 26 patients with clinically approved HCC underwent one or two TACE with DC Beads within 6 weeks and were evaluated after 12 weeks by MRI or computed tomography on the basis of the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in the Solid Tumours guidelines for HCC. For improved comparability of both groups, 16 patients were matched in terms of Child-Pugh classification, Barcelona classification of liver cancer, age and sex. The overall tumour response showed progressive disease in 11% and an objective response in 89% for the double TACE group compared with progressive disease in 29.5%, objective response in 34.5% and stable disease in 35% for the single TACE group. In the matched population, absolute tumour shrinkage was 61.1±28.3% for the double TACE group and 14.1±38.5% for the single TACE group (P<0.05). This retrospective study shows significantly higher tumour shrinkage in patients who underwent two TACE within 6 weeks compared with patients who underwent a single intervention in terms of the initial response rate after 12 weeks. It emphasizes the use of matched populations for the evaluation of tumour response in HCC after TACE.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the influence of dual antiplatelet therapy vs. aspirin alone on local platelet activation and clinical endpoints in patients with PAD treated with endovascular therapy. Patients received either 500 mg aspirin and 300 mg clopidogrel before intervention followed by a daily dose of 100 mg aspirin and 75 mg clopidogrel for 6 months, or the same doses of aspirin plus placebo instead of clopidogrel. Primary endpoints were local concentrations of platelet activation markers β-thromboglobulin and CD40L, and the rate of patient's resistant to clopidogrel. Secondary endpoints included the clinical development 6 months after the intervention. Eighty patients, 40 in each group, were enrolled. The median peri-interventional concentration of β-TG was 224.5 vs. 365.5 (P = 0.03) in the clopidogrel and placebo group. The concentration of CD40L was 127 and 206.5 (P = 0.05). Thirty per cent of patients who had received clopidogrel were resistant. Two clopidogrel and eight placebo patients required TLR (P = 0.04). The clopidogrel patients who needed revascularisation were both resistant to clopidogrel. Minor bleeding complications occurred in one clopidogrel and two placebo patients. Dual antiplatetet therapy reduces peri-interventional platelet activation and improves functional outcome without higher bleeding complications. An individual tailored dual antiplatelet therapy seems desirable for endovascularly treated patients with PAD.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · European Radiology

Publication Stats

256 Citations
114.30 Total Impact Points


  • 2005-2015
    • University of Tuebingen
      • • Department of Radiology
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2008-2013
    • Universitätsklinikum Tübingen
      • Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany