[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clarify the clinical significance of Pneumococcal pneumonia in nursing-home-acquired pneumonia, we examined the positive disease rate of using sputum cultures and the Binax NOW Streptococcus pneumoniae urinary antigen assay in 154 nursing-home patients with pneumonia. These included 54 males and 100 females with a mean age of 86.2 years. Bacteriological findings for sputum culture in 130 patients showed Streptococcus pneumoniae to be cultured in 11 cases (8%). In 72 in whom the Streptococcus pneumoniae-urinary antigen test (Binax NOW) was done, the urinary-antigen-positive rate (26/72; 36%) was higher than the culture positive rate for S. pneumoniae. Both examinations were done in 64 patients, among whom 5 in whom S. pneumoniae was cultured also had positive results for the urinary antigen test. Almost half of those undergoing percutaneous endoscopic gastroscopy (PEG) tube nutrition had positive results for the urinary antigen test, but not all such patients had positive cultures for S. pneumoniae. Although the culture-positive rate for S. pneumoniae in sputum was low, we concluded that S. pneumoniae was frequently linked to nursing-homeacquired pneumonia, especially in“total-care” patients.
Preview · Article · Jan 2008 · Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted the comparative study to clarify the clinical efficacy and features of ciprofloxacin (CPFX) and biapenem (BIPM) in the treatment of moderate or severe pneumonia. Among 209 patients enrolled, 173 patients (CPFX; 87, BIPM; 86) complying with the protocol were evaluated for safety and 171 (CPFX; 85, BIPM; 86) for efficacy. No significant difference was noted between groups in patient profiles. Both groups were similar in efficacy, as evaluated by the following variables: fever, WBC, CRP, and chest X ray score. The incidence of adverse drug reactions was 16.1% (14/87 patients) in the CPFX group and 16.3% (14/86 patients) in the BIPM group. Phlebitis occasionally occurred in the CPFX group and drug eruption and liver function disorder occasionally in the BIPM group. In conclusion, both CPFX and BIPM were useful in treating moderate or severe pneumonia and no difference was seen between groups in efficacy. Some differences were noted in adverse reactions, however.
Preview · Article · Jun 2007 · Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clarify whether the environment of a nursing home affects the clinical features of patients with pneumonia, we compared the characteristics of 103 patients (nursing home group) who suffered from pneumonia at a nursing home with 153 elderly patients with the same background (community group) who lived in their own home. Although there were no significant differences in CRP, WBC, and body temperature at admission and duration of hospitalization, the degree of independency of the nursing home group was significantly lower than the community group. As the degree of independency became worse, the length of hospitalization extended and mortality increased. Bacteriological findings of sputum culture showed that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was cultured in 20 cases (19%) of the nursing home group and 18 cases (13%) of the community group. In isolated analysis of total care cases, MRSA positive rates were similar in the nursing home group (17/58; 29%) and the community group (8/30; 27%). Only 1 case with penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae (PSSP) was found in the nursing home group, however 7 species of PSSP were cultured in the community group, including 5 self-help cases. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was cultured in 8 patients of each group, and most of them were total care cases. We concluded that the difference in frequency and species of bacteria depended on the condition of patients, rather than the environment, and differences in conditions might lead to differences in clinical features.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prevention of candidemia has been difficult and empirical therapy may eventually reduce morbidity and mortality. Successful empirical therapies depend on understanding of fungal features and antifungal agents. Susceptibility to amphotericin B (AMPH-B), flucytosine (5-FC), fluconazole (FLCZ), itraconazole (ITCZ), miconazole (MCZ), and micafungin (MCFG) of 41 Candida species isolated from blood were determined. Candida albicans was the most common species (23 species), followed by C. parapsilosis (5 species), C. tropicalis (4 species), C. glabrata (3 species), C. guilliermondii (2 species), C. krusei (1 specie), and Candida spp (3 species). The isolation rates of the drug-resistant (DR) fungi were 5% for 5-FC. The rates of DR and susceptible dose dependent (S-DD) fungi were 0% and 2% for FLCZ, respectively. The rates of DR and S-DD fungi were 0% and 17% for ITCZ, respectively. No shift to resistant species in C. albicans occurred in our hospitals. All C. albicans were susceptible for the antifungal agents examined.
Preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases