Julia A Flanagan

University of Leicester, Leiscester, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (4)24.27 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In a nationwide study, we identified a total of 59 patients diagnosed with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) in Finland between the years 1987 and 1999. These data support a minimum estimate for a PPH population prevalence of 5.8 cases/million with an incidence of 0.2-1.3 cases/million/year. The male-to-female ratio among the patients was 1:4, while 7% (4/59) of the PPH probands had a known family history of the disorder. Familial or sporadic PPH showed no geographic clustering to any region of Finland. Sequencing of the coding regions and exon-intron boundaries of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2) identified heterozygous BMPR2 mutations in 12% (3/26) of the sporadic and 33% (1/3) of the familial patients. All four mutations were different, and two of those have been previously reported in other populations. Pathogenic defects in BMPR2 include a novel missense mutation (c.2696G>C encoding R899P), located within the receptor intracellular cytoplasmic domain whose function has been poorly characterized. Our analysis demonstrates that this mutant, while localizing to the cell surface, does not impact on SMAD-mediated (mothers against decapentaplegic homolog) intracellular signaling, but leads to constitutive activation of the p38(MAPK) pathway. The absence of a founder mutation in a genetically homogeneous population, such as the Finns, suggests that all identified BMPR2 mutations have to be rather young while the ancestral (if any) mutations have been lost either due to repetitive genetic bottlenecks or due to significant negative selection. Hum Mutat 26(2), 1-6, 2005. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2005 · Human Mutation
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    ABSTRACT: Diverse heterozygous mutations of bone morphogenetic receptor type II (BMPR-II) underlie the inherited form of the vascular disorder primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH). As yet, the molecular detail of how such defects contribute to the pathogenesis of PPH remains unclear. BMPR-II is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta cell signalling superfamily. Ligand binding induces cell surface receptor complex formation and activates a cascade of phosphorylation events of intracellular intermediaries termed Smads, which initiate transcriptional regulation. Some 30% of PPH-causing mutations localize to exon 12, which may be spliced out forming an isoform depleted of the unusually long BMPR-II cytoplasmic tail. To further elucidate the consequences of BMPR2 mutation, we sought to characterize aspects of the cytoplasmic domain function by seeking intracellular binding partners. We now report that Tctex-1, a light chain of the motor complex dynein, interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of BMPR-II and demonstrate that Tctex-1 is phosphorylated by BMPR-II, a function disrupted by PPH disease causing mutations within exon 12. Finally we show that BMPR-II and Tctex-1 co-localize to endothelium and smooth muscle within the media of pulmonary arterioles, key sites of vascular remodelling in PPH. Taken together, these data demonstrate a discrete function for the cytoplasmic domain of BMPR-II and justify further investigation of whether the interaction with and phosphorylation of Tctex-1 contributes to the pathogenesis of PPH.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2004 · Human Molecular Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) receptor components ENDOGLIN and ALK-1 cause the autosomal dominant vascular disorder hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Heterozygous mutations of the type II receptor BMPR2 underlie familial primary pulmonary hypertension. To investigate kindreds presenting with both pulmonary hypertension and HHT. Probands and families were identified by specialist pulmonary hypertension centres in five countries. DNA sequence analysis of ALK-1, ENDOGLIN, and BMPR2 was undertaken. Cellular localisation was investigated by heterologous overexpression of mutant constructs in both BAEC and HeLa cells. The impact of a novel sequence variant was assessed through comparative analysis and computer modelling. Molecular analysis of 11 probands identified eight missense mutations of ALK-1, one of which was observed in two families. Mutations were located within exons 5 to 10 of the ALK-1 gene. The majority of ALK-1 mutant constructs appeared to be retained within the cell cytoplasm, in the endoplasmic reticulum. A novel GS domain mutation, when overexpressed, reached the cell surface but is predicted to disrupt conformational changes owing to loss of a critical hydrogen bond. Two novel missense mutations were identified in ENDOGLIN. The association of pulmonary arterial hypertension and HHT identifies an important disease complication and appears most common among subjects with defects in ALK-1 receptor signalling. Future studies should focus on detailed molecular analysis of the common cellular pathways disrupted by mutations of ALK-1 and BMPR2 that cause inherited pulmonary vascular disease.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2004 · Journal of Medical Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: A wide range of mutations in the type II receptor for bone morphogenetic protein (BMPR-II) have been shown to underlie primary pulmonary hypertension. To determine the mechanism of altered BMPR-II function, we employed transient transfection studies in cell lines and primary cultures of pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged wild-type and mutant BMPR2 constructs and confocal microscopy to localize receptors. Substitution of cysteine residues in the ligand binding or kinase domain prevented trafficking of BMPR-II to the cell surface, and reduced binding of (125)I-BMP4. In addition, transfection of cysteine-substituted BMPR-II markedly reduced basal and BMP4-stimulated transcriptional activity of a BMP/Smad responsive luciferase reporter gene (3GC2wt-Lux), compared with wild-type BMPR-II, suggesting a dominant-negative effect of these mutants on Smad signalling. In contrast, BMPR-II containing non-cysteine substitutions in the kinase domain were localized to the cell membrane, although these also suppressed the activity of 3GC2wt-Lux. Interestingly, BMPR-II mutations within the cytoplasmic tail trafficked to the cell surface, but retained the ability to activate 3GC2wt-Lux. Transfection of mutant, but not wild-type, constructs into a mouse epithelial cell line (NMuMG cells) led to activation of p38(MAPK) and increased serum-induced proliferation compared with the wild-type receptor, which was partly p38(MAPK)-dependent. We conclude that mutations in BMPR-II heterogeneously inhibit BMP/Smad-mediated signalling by diverse molecular mechanisms. However, all mutants studied demonstrate a gain of function involving upregulation of p38(MAPK)-dependent proproliferative pathways.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2002 · Human Molecular Genetics