[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: We previously showed that previous chemotherapy and immediate breast reconstruction were associated with an increased risk of surgical site infection (SSI) in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery. The present before-after study evaluated a preventive strategy for high-risk patients.
We compared the incidence of SSI in two prospective observational cohorts of patients underwent clean procedure in curative intent for a-biopsy proven breast cancer: a historical cohort followed before implementation of a preventive strategy and a second cohort followed thereafter. The strategy consisted of identifying patients at risk of SSI and prophylaxis administration of cefuroxime to those patients. The impact of our strategy was analyzed using a logistic regression model adjusted for potential confounders.
SSI incidence was estimated at 19/542 (3.5%) before preventive strategy versus 2/247 (0.8%) thereafter (crude odds ratio (OR) 0.22 confidence interval [95% CI 0.05-0.97], P = 0.03). After adjustment for confounders (breast reconstruction, previous breast surgery, and duration of surgery), our preventive strategy reduced the risk of SSI by 81% (adjusted OR 0.19 [95% CI 0.04-0.85], P = 0.03).
These results showed that antibiotic prophylaxis is beneficial for patients at high-risk of WI after breast cancer surgery. Randomized controlled trials should now confirm these findings.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for the mortality during the first 30 days after a major head and neck cancer surgery. Two hundred and sixty one consecutive surgical procedure were prospectively studied at Oscar Lambret Cancer Centre within a 36-months period. Twenty variables were recorded for each patient. The significant risk factors for postoperative mortality were assessed by univariate and multivariate analysis. Overall 30-days mortality rate was 3.83% [95% CI 3.13-4.53]. In univariate analysis identified four risk factors: female gender (odd ratio 4.25 [95% CI 1.03-17.56]), age equal or superior than 70 (odd ratio 5.06 [95% CI 1.35-18.36]), current alcohol addiction (odd ratio 3.65 [1.02-13.06]) and laryngeal location (odd ratio 4.23 [CI 95% 1.18-3.38]). In multivariate analysis only female gender and laryngeal location remained significant. The incidence of postoperative mortality was 1.63% for patients without risk factor and was 6.41% for those with one or two risk factors. This model identifies easily high-risk patients for major head and neck cancer surgery. A multicenter validation is necessary.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Recent data issuing the prognostic impact of hypercalcemia on outcome of aerodigestive tract cancers are spare. To assess the prognosis and the survival of head and neck cancer patients with hypercalcemia, we reviewed 136 recent successive cases, including also oesophageal and lung cancers. Data were collected from a retrospective database (July 2002-January 2004). Hypercalcemia was defined by calcemia level above 2.55 mmol/l. Univariate analysis for prognosis was performed with Mann-Whitney test (continuous variables) and Odd Ratio with 95% confidence interval (categorical variables). The primary locations were : oropharynx and oral cavity (79, 58%), hypopharynx (13, 9.5%), larynx (10, 7.3%), oesophagus (17, 12.5%) and lung (17, 12.5%). There were 23 females and 123 males, with a median age of 53 (18-86). The incidence of bone metastasis was low: 20/136, 14.5%. At cancer diagnosis, 32 hypercalcemia were observed. With a median follow-up of 88 days (2-553), we observed 98 deaths (overall mortality=72%). The median overall survival was 35 days (2-553+). The pejorative prognostic factors were: male gender (OR=2.64 CI 95% 1.07-6.82), age inferior to 50 (OR=2.67 CI 95% 1.23-5.8), presence of distant metastasis (OR=4.45 CI 95% 1.8-11.01), elevation of alkaline phosphatases (OR=7 CI 95% 2.73-17.9) and need of hospitalization for intravenous hydratation (OR=5.11 CI 95% 1.99-13.17). We observed 39 recurrences of hypercalcemia. The predictive factors for recurrence of hypercalcemia were: age superior to 50 (OR=4.61 CI 95% 2.02-10.52), male gender (OR=38.22 CI 95% 12.2-89), calcemia level superior to 2.7 mmol/l (OR=3.08 CI 95% 1.42-6.64) and absence of diphosphonates (bisphosphonates: OR=2.16 CI 95% 1.01-4.63). Despite use of diphosphonates (infusions of pamidronate), hypercalcemia is associated with very poor prognosis. Tumour location and level of calcemia had no prognostic value.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: We evaluated the incidence, risk factors and consequences of wound infection (WI) following major head and neck cancer surgery in an open non-comparative study.
The study group, comprising 95 patients who underwent clean-contaminated procedures with opening of the upper aerodigestive tract for biopsy-proven squamous cell cancer, were studied over a 1-year period. Antibiotic prophylaxis was amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. More than 20 variables were prospectively recorded for each patient. The mean follow-up was 30 months.
The overall WI rate was 50.5% (48/95). Most pathogens isolated from samples were gram-negative rods. In univariate analysis, we found three risk factors for WI: alcohol consumption (P = 0.07), a hypopharyngeal location (P = 0.02) and laryngectomy stoma (P = 0.01). WI were associated with postoperative fever (P = l.5 x 10(-11)), postoperative antibiotic therapy (P = 1.5 x 10(-5)) and postoperative death (P = 0.043). Patients without WI had a median postoperative hospital stay of 15 days compared with 29 days for those with WI (P < 0.001). Healing of WI was achieved after a median time of 48 days. WI delayed postoperative radiation therapy in 21 out of 33 evaluable patients. But overall survival, and local and metastatic failures were similar with and without WI.
WI are associated with a heavy postoperative morbidity, but have no prognostic impact on cancer control.