[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of preventive dental visits and to identify self-reported barriers for this practice among Kuwaiti adults.
A self-administered, anonymous, structured questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of Kuwaiti nationals 18 years of age or older recruited from all six health districts of Kuwait. A total of 2,400 questionnaires were distributed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors independently associated with not having a preventive dental visit for more than 1 year.
Of the 2,400 questionnaires, 1,925 (80.2%) were completed. Of these, 620 (32.2%) had a dental visit within the previous 6 months, 504 (26.2%) between 6 and 12 months and 801 (41.6%) more than 12 months ago. The most common reasons for the last dental visits were pain or a dental emergency, need for restorative treatment, and an examination/prophylaxis. The strongest factors for not having preventive visits were not using a mouthrinse daily, flossing less than once a day, dental fear, belief that there is no need for visits unless pain was present, brushing the teeth less than twice a day, and believing that appointments are too far ahead. Also older respondents (>30 years), female gender, and those having only high school education or less were less likely to visit a dentist for preventive reasons.
More than half of the studied population reported not having had a preventive visit for more than 1 year. Unfavorable self-care habits, dental fear and belief that visiting a dentist is necessary only for pain relief were the strongest factors for the nonattendance behavior.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2007 · Medical Principles and Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dental caries and periodontal diseases have been declining in most industrialized countries, but this positive trend has not been seen in the Middle East. This study aimed to determine oral health knowledge and behavior of the students at the Health Sciences College in Kuwait as well as possible associated factors. This study was first conducted at the college of the male students (n = 153) during the autumn semester in 2001. A similar questionnaire study was then conducted at the college of the female students (n = 547) during the spring semester in 2002. The samples were merged for this study, for a total sample of 700 students. The response rate was 84% (n = 128) among the male students and 73% (n = 400) among the female students. Most of the students had visited a dentist during the past year, and quite a high proportion was seen for an examination or prevention. Female students reported twice-a-day tooth-brushing frequency much more often than did male students. They also used fluoride toothpaste more often than male students. Oral health knowledge (as a summary variable) was statistically significantly higher among the female students than among the male students. It was also strongly associated with the older age among the female students. The knowledge and oral health behavior of the Health Sciences College students in Kuwait, especially among the male students, seems to be poor and calls for an urgent improvement of health education programs.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2007 · Journal of allied health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to examine self-reported oral hygiene habits and oral health problems of a sample of adult Kuwaitis.
A self-administered, anonymous, structured questionnaire was distributed to 2,400 adult Kuwaiti nationals from all 6 governates of Kuwait assessing socio-demographic variables, oral hygiene habits, and oral health problems.
Of the 2,400 questionnaires, 1,925 (80.25%) responded. Of these, 62% reported brushing their teeth at least twice daily, while daily use of dental floss was uncommon (11.8%). Adequate toothbrushing habits were significantly associated with female gender, educational level, non-smoking status, and history of recent preventive dental visits (p = 0.001). The majority of subjects reported multiple oral health problems (64.7% with 2 or more and 41.8% with 3 or more). Factors associated with multiple oral health complaints included younger age, smoking, not having a recent preventive dental visit, and brushing the teeth less than twice daily.
Less than two-thirds of the sampled adult Kuwaitis followed the recommended toothbrushing frequency of twice daily or more, and the majority of subjects have not had a preventive dental visit in the previous 6 months. Furthermore, most subjects reported multiple oral health problems that are mostly preventable through adequate oral hygiene habits and regular preventive dental visits.
No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Medical Principles and Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association between periodontal disease severity and diabetes complications and duration in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) was investigated in this comparative cross-sectional study.
Twenty-nine patients with type 1 DM of < or = 5 years duration were compared with 43 patients with > 5 years duration of DM. Complete medical history and examination and assessments of retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy were performed, followed by assessments of the plaque index (PI), pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and the number of missing teeth by one examiner masked to the diabetic status of the patients.
The number of missing teeth (4 versus 0) and CAL (2.88 vs 2.56 mm) were significantly higher in patients with longer DM duration (p < 0.05). For patients with > or = 5 years DM duration, periodontal disease severity was also greater in patients with one or more DM complications, as assessed by the number of missing teeth (17 vs 0; p < 0.001) and CAL (4.74 vs 2.81 mm; p < 0.01). Stepwise multiple regression analysis associated the presence of > or = 1 DM complications and smoking history with severe attachment loss (CAL > or = 7 mm; p < 0.001).
Periodontal disease severity is associated with both DM duration and the presence of DM complications in this sample of type 1 DM patients.
No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Journal of the International Academy of Periodontology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oral malodor is a common complaint of dental patients, yet limited data is available on the actual prevalence of this condition. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with self-reported halitosis in Kuwaiti patients.
This was a cross-sectional study of Kuwaiti adults using a 19-point self-administered structured questionnaire on self-perception of halitosis. Significant associations between self-reported oral malodor and sociodemographic, medical history, and oral hygiene variables were examined with multiple logistic regression analysis.
A total of 1551 subjects participated (response rate=86.2%). The prevalence of self-reported halitosis was 23.3%. Use of the toothbrush less than once daily was the factor most strongly associated with self-perceived halitosis (OR=2.68; 95% CI=1.83-3.92; p<0.001). Other factors significantly associated with self-perceived halitosis included current or past smoking (OR=2.51), female gender (OR=1.54), being 30 years of age or older (OR=1.35), having high school education or less (OR=1.41), history of chronic sinusitis (OR=1.58) or gastrointestinal disorders (OR=1.73), never using miswak (OR=1.56), and never using dental floss (OR=1.33).
Inadequate oral hygiene practices were the factors most strongly associated with self-reported oral malodor in this sample of Kuwaiti patients. Other factors with significant associations included history of gastrointestinal tract disorders, chronic sinusitis, older age, female gender, and lower education levels.
No preview · Article · Aug 2006 · Journal of Dentistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the frequency of implant recommendation by general dental practitioners to patients who had extractions as a result of periodontal disease and factors that influenced their decisions.
Dentists in each of 20 general dental practice centers in Kuwait were asked to document replacement options given to patients after all tooth extractions performed for periodontal reasons within a 30-day period. The association of demographic and medical/dental history variables with the decision to recommend an implant was statistically tested.
A total of 711 patients with a mean age +/- of 47.34 +/- 0.45 years (range 18-96) had 2202 teeth extracted for periodontal reasons during the study period. Only 21 implants for 12 patients were offered as a replacement option (1.7%). Factors significantly associated with a less likelihood of implant recommendation included older age, male gender, diabetes mellitus, inadequate compliance with regular periodontal maintenance visits, inadequate oral hygiene practices, and anterior tooth types (P < 0.05; chi test).
Dental implants were rarely recommended to patients losing their teeth for periodontal reasons by general dentists in Kuwait.
No preview · Article · Mar 2006 · Implant Dentistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The negative effects of cigarette smoking on oral health are well established, yet few studies assessed patient awareness of such effects. The aim of this study was to examine differences in dental patient knowledge and awareness of the effects of smoking on oral health between smokers and non-smokers.
Adult patients from 12 dental centers in Kuwait were asked to complete a 14-point self-administered structured questionnaire on the effects of smoking on oral health in this cross-sectional survey. Significant associations between oral health knowledge, smoking status, and sociodemographic variables were examined with univariate analysis and logistic regression.
A total of 1012 subjects participated (response rate = 84.3%). The prevalence of smoking was 29.3%. Fewer smokers than non-smokers thought that oral health and smoking are related (92.2% vs. 95.8%; P = 0.020), and that smoking affected oral cancer (52.4% vs. 66.8%; P < 0.001), periodontal health (72% vs. 78%; P = 0.040), or tooth staining (86.1% vs. 90.9%; P = 0.018). Logistic regression analysis showed smokers to be significantly less aware of the oral health effects of smoking than non-smoking patients (OR=1.51; 95% CI: 1.05-2.16; P = 0.025).
Smoking dental patients are significantly less aware of the oral health effects of smoking than non-smokers. Comparative studies in other populations may be warranted to ascertain the validity of these results.
No preview · Article · Mar 2006 · Journal of Dentistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate reasons for tooth extraction and its association with age and gender in Kuwait.
A record of all tooth extractions performed in 21 general dental practice centers during a 1-month period was logged on specially designed study forms. The patient's age and gender, number of teeth extracted, and the reason(s) for the extraction were recorded.
A total of 2,783 teeth were extracted in 1,604 patients (1.73 +/- 0.07 teeth per patient). Caries and periodontal disease were responsible for 43.7 and 37.4% of extractions, respectively. Caries was the principal cause for extraction in patients < or =40 years old (60.7%), while periodontal disease was the main cause of extractions in patients > or =40 years of age (63.0%). Extractions for caries and orthodontic reasons were more common in females, while extractions for periodontal disease were more prevalent in males. Molars and maxillary premolars were more commonly extracted due to caries, while mandibular premolars, and maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth (canines and incisors) were more commonly extracted due to periodontal disease.
The data show that caries is the principal cause for extractions in younger patients, while periodontal disease accounts for the majority of tooth extractions in patients older than 40 years. Furthermore, this study indicates that more teeth per patient are lost to periodontal disease than for any other reason.
No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Medical Principles and Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surveys have shown increases in dental caries in young persons in Kuwait. Intake of sugar and carbohydrates has increased, as has the incidence of obesity. The objective of this study was to identify dietary practices and the potential for dental disease in primary, intermediate, and secondary school students in a health region. A random sample of 600 students aged 8, 13, and 17 yrs in 12 schools (6 boys' schools and 6 girls' schools) received a questionnaire. Responses were analyzed by age group, gender, and dietary practices at home and in school. The dietary composition of meals tended to be similar at all ages and in both genders. A total of 97% of 8-yr-old, 96% of 13-yr-old, and 92% of 17-yr-old students reported snacking at school. Sugar intake from identified snacks alone was calculated as 193.8 g/day or the estimated equivalent of 746 calories, and daily fat intake was 70.17 g. A total of 88.6% of respondents (56.6% of all children) used fluoridated toothpaste; 44.4% of all children (22.6% of 8-yr-old, 14.1% of 13-yr-old, and 7.7% of 17-yr-old students) reported brushing their teeth three times per day. Use of school snacks increased with age, while use of a toothbrush decreased. Fundamental oral hygiene procedures such as brushing and use of fluoridated toothpaste appear to have been implemented. Health workers need to provide new and pertinent oral health messages, nutrition counseling, attention to diet, and reinforcement with parents, food preparers, health facilities, and intermediate and secondary schools.
No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Journal of allied health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several risk indicators for periodontal disease severity have been identified. The association of these factors with tooth loss for periodontal reasons was investigated in this cross-sectional comparative study.
All extractions performed in 21 general dental practice clinics (25% of such clinics in Kuwait) over a 30-day period were recorded. Documented information included patient age and gender, medical history findings, dental maintenance history, toothbrushing frequency, types and numbers of extracted teeth, and the reason for the extraction. Reasons were divided into periodontal disease versus other reasons in univariate and binary logistic regression analyses.
A total of 1,775 patients had 3,694 teeth extracted. More teeth per patient were lost due to periodontal disease than for other reasons (2.8 +/- 0.2 versus 1.8 +/- 0.1; P <0.001). Factors significantly associated with tooth loss due to periodontal reasons in logistic regression analysis were age >35 years (odds ratio [OR] 3.45; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.79 to 4.26), male gender (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.17 to 1.73), never having periodontal maintenance (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.23 to 1.78), never using a toothbrush (OR 1.81; 95% CI 1.49 to 2.20), current or past smoking (OR 1.56; 95% CI 1.28 to 1.91), anterior tooth type (OR 3.23; 95% CI 2.57 to 4.05), and the presence of either of the following medical conditions: diabetes mellitus (OR 2.64; 95% CI 2.19 to 3.18), hypertension (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.41 to 2.13), or rheumatoid arthritis (OR 4.19; 95% CI 2.17 to 8.11).
Tooth loss due to periodontal disease is associated with the risk indicators of age, male gender, smoking, lack of professional maintenance, inadequate oral hygiene, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis, and anterior tooth type.
No preview · Article · Nov 2005 · Journal of Periodontology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to describe self-reported oral health, oral hygiene habits, and frequency of visits to a dentist among pregnant women in Kuwait.
A cross-sectional study with an anonymous structured questionnaire was distributed among 650 pregnant women during May-June 2003, when they were admitted to the maternity ward at the largest government maternity hospital in Kuwait City. The response rate was 93% (n=603).
Every fourth respondent was in her first pregnancy, while 36% already had three or more children. Every fifth woman felt that her oral health was poor, and one-third of the women believed that they had periodontal problems currently. About two-thirds of the women were brushing more than once a day and almost all (94%) at least once a day. Over the previous 6 months, 40% had experienced dental pain. Half of the women had visited a dentist during pregnancy, mostly for dental pain. Most of the women had received no instructions concerning oral health care during their pregnancy.
A large proportion of the pregnant women in this study had oral health problems; however, half of the women had not seen a dentist during their pregnancy.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2005 · Journal Of Clinical Periodontology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of dental implants for single-tooth replacement has been established as a predictable treatment option; yet, limited data are available as to how frequently this option is recommended to patients. The aim of the present study was to examine the frequency of implant recommendation by general dental practitioners after single-tooth extraction and factors influencing their decision to recommend an implant. All single-tooth extractions performed in 26 general dental practice clinics in Kuwait over a 30-day period were examined. Dentists in these centers used the study form to record demographic data, the type of tooth extracted, reason for extraction, and replacement options presented to the patients. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between background factors and decisions to recommend implant therapy. A total of 1367 patients (mean age, 37.9 +/- 11.8 years) had an extraction of one tooth during the study period. Forty-three patients were offered implants as a replacement option (3.3% of the total sample; 8.6% of patients who were offered tooth replacement options). Factors associated significantly with the recommendation of an implant by Kuwaiti dentists to their patients included younger age, regular dental maintenance visits, and adequate oral hygiene practices (P < 0.05; binary logistic regression). Dental implant recommendation for single-tooth replacement in the present sample of dentists was low. Factors associated significantly with dentist recommendation of an implant for single-tooth replacement included age, history of dental maintenance, and oral hygiene practices.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Health auxiliary personnel have an important role in oral health promotion when they graduate and start working in the health care system. This study aims to find out oral health knowledge and oral health behavior of male Health Sciences College students.
A questionnaire was distributed to all students at the male Health Sciences College in Kuwait (N = 153) during the academic year 2001/2002. The students filled the anonymous questionnaire in the class after the lecture. The response rate was 84% (n = 128). The questions consisted information on the general background, oral health behavior and oral health knowledge.
Oral health knowledge seemed to be limited and very few background factors were associated with it. More than half of the students had visited a dentist during the previous 12 months, but only one third of students were brushing twice a day or more often.
It may be concluded that the male Health Sciences College students seemed to have appropriate knowledge on some oral health topics, but limited knowledge on the others. Their toothbrushing practices are still far behind the international recommendation (twice a day) and also the knowledge, why it should be done so frequently also very limited.