[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The Zwolle Risk Score (ZRS) identifies ST‐elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) eligible for early discharge. We aimed to investigate whether baseline N‐terminal pro–brain natriuretic peptide (NT‐proBNP) is also able to identify these patients and could improve future risk strategies.
Methods and Results
PPCI patients included in the Ongoing Tirofiban in Myocardial Infarction Evaluation (On‐TIME) II study were candidates (N=861). We analyzed whether ZRS and baseline NT‐proBNP predicted 30‐day mortality and assessed the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) and major bleeding. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to assess discriminative accuracy for ZRS, NT‐pro‐BNP, and their combination. After multiple imputation, 845 patients were included. Both ZRS >3 (hazard ratio [HR]=9.42; P<0.001) and log NT‐pro‐BNP (HR=2.61; P<0.001) values were associated with 30‐day mortality. On multivariate analysis, both the ZRS (HR=1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.27 to 1.56; P<0.001) and log NT‐proBNP (HR=2.09; 95% CI=1.59 to 2.74; P<0.001) independently predicted death at 30 days. The area under the curve for 30‐day mortality for combined ZRS/NT‐proBNP was 0.94 (95% CI=0.90 to 0.99), with optimal predictive values of a ZRS ≥2 and a NT‐proBNP value of ≥200 pg/mL. Using these cut‐off values, 64% of the study population could be identified as very low risk with zero mortality at 30 days follow‐up and low occurrence of MACEs and major bleeding between 48 hours and 10 days (1.3% and 0.6%, respectively).
Baseline NT‐proBNP identifies a large group of low‐risk patients who may be eligible for early (48‐ to 72‐hour) discharge, whereas optimal predictive accuracy is reached by the combination of both baseline NT‐proBNP and ZRS.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of the American Heart Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
The aim was to investigate whether a strategy of direct drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation without pre-dilation is associated with a reduced incidence of restenosis compared with CS with pre-dilation or provisional stenting (PS).
Previous studies were performed comparing direct stenting (DS) with conventional stenting (CS) after pre-dilation; however, none of these in the DES era. Therefore, the STRESSED (direct Stenting To reduce REStenosis in Stent Era with Drug elution) study was designed and carried out.
A total of 600 patients with angina pectoris or recent myocardial infarction were randomized to a DS, CS, or PS strategy. The primary endpoint was the mean minimal lumen diameter at 9-month follow-up angiography. Secondary endpoints were clinical procedural success defined as angiographic success without in-hospital major adverse cardiac events (MACE), and MACE at 9-month and 2-year follow-up.
Stent implantation in the DS group was 98%, 99% in the CS group, and 77% in the PS group. Percutaneous coronary intervention success was 99% in all groups. The minimal lumen diameter at 9-month follow-up was 2.12 ± 0.58 mm (DS), 2.17 ± 0.67 mm (CS), and 1.99 ± 0.69 mm (PS), p = 0.556 for comparison of DS with CS, p = 0.073 for comparison of DS with PS. The absolute difference was −0.05 (DS to CS), 95% confidence interval: −0.19 to −0.09, p = 0.48 and 0.13 (DS to PS), confidence interval: −0.02 to −0.27, p = 0.087. Restenosis was found in 3.4% (DS), 6.7% (CS), and 11.5% (PS), p = 0.025. At 9-month and 2-year follow-up, MACE occurred in 6.8% and 11.5% (DS), 4.6% and 10.3% (CS), and 7.6% and 13.8% (PS) (p = 0.439 and 0.536), respectively.
Direct DES implantation compared with conventional DES implantation did not reduce restenosis. Provisional stenting, however, was associated with a higher rate of restenosis. This did not translate into a difference in the rate of MACE. (STRESSED study: direct Stenting To reduce REStenosis in Stent Era with Drug elution; ISRCTN41213536)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Poorer outcomes in women with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are often attributed to gender differences in baseline characteristics. However, these may be age dependent. We examined the importance of gender in separate age groups of patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI).
Data of 6746 consecutive patients with STEMI admitted for PPCI between 1998 and 2008 in our hospital were evaluated. Age was stratified into two groups, <65 years (young group) and ≥65 years (elderly). Endpoints were enzymic infarct size as well as 30-day and 1 year mortality. We studied a total of 4991 (74.0%) men and 1755 (26.0%) women; 40% of women were <65 years and 60% of men were <65 years of age. In the elderly group (≥65 years), women had more frequently diabetes and hypertension while they smoked less frequently than men. Younger women smoked more often than similarly aged men and had more hypertension. At angiography, single-vessel disease and TIMI 3 flow before PPCI was more present in younger women than men, whereas these differences were not found in the older age group. Patient delay before admission was shorter in men at all ages, while women had lower creatine kinase levels. Younger women had a higher mortality after 30 days (HR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.4) and at 1 year (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.6), whereas in the older age group women mortality rates were higher at 30 days (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.0) but not at 1 year (HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.5). After multivariate analysis, 1-year mortality remained significantly higher in women at younger age (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.5). Patient delay before admission was shorter in men in both age groups. Creatine kinase levels were in both age groups higher in men.
Differences in mortality between men and women with STEMI treated with PPCI are age dependent. Although young women have less obstructive coronary artery disease and more often TIMI 3 flow before PCI (suggesting a lower risk), survival was worse compared to similarly aged men. Women had a longer patient delay compared to men, but this was not related to gender-specific mortality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It was the purpose of this study to assess the effect of thrombus aspiration (TA) during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) on reperfusion and clinical outcome in a real-world STEMI population. The decision to use TA (Export catheter, Medtronic) was at the discretion of the treating cardiologist. The primary endpoint was mortality at short (in-hospital) and long term (one year) follow-up. Secondary end points were post-PCI TIMI flow, residual ST deviation and enzymatic infarct size. Cox proportional hazard models (propensity-weighted) and logistic regression analysis were used to adjust for known covariates, associated with mortality. We performed a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on 2,552 consecutive PPCI-treated STEMI patients between 2007 and 2010. Use of TA increased from 6.9% in 2007 to 62.2% in 2010 (p<0.001). TA was performed in 899 patients (35.2%). In-hospital and one-year mortality rates were 3.0% and 6.0%, respectively, in the TA group and 3.5% and 7.6% in the no-TA group. After multivariate analysis, TA was not significantly associated with in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.33-1.49, p=0.36) nor one year mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.47-1.20, p=0.23) or cardiac mortality (HR: 0.81; 95%CI: 0.45-1.46, p=0.49). After matching on the propensity score, the HR in the TA group for one year mortality was 0.70 (95%CI: 0.41-1.20, p=0.19) and for one-year cardiac mortality 0.70 (95%CI: 0.36-1.34, p=0.28). In conclusion, no significant relationship of TA with one of the secondary end points was found. The use of TA increased over the last years but clinical outcome was similar in both groups (TA vs no-TA) in this large cohort of real-world, unselected STEMI patients.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Thrombosis and Haemostasis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both acute hyperglycemia as diabetes results in an impaired prognosis in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. It is unknown whether there is a different prevalence of diabetes and acute hyperglycemia in men and women within age-groups.
Between 2004 and 2010, 4640 consecutive patients (28% women) with STEMI, were referred for primary PCI. Patients were stratified into two age groups, <65 years (2447 patients) and >=65 years (2193 patients). Separate analyses were performed in 3901 patients without diabetes. Diabetes was defined as known diabetes or HbA1c >=6.5 mmol/l at admission.
The prevalence of diabetes was comparable between women and men in the younger age group (14% vs 12%, p = 0.52), whereas in the older age group diabetes was more prevalent in women (25% vs 17% p < 0.001). In patients without diabetes, admission glucose was comparable between both genders in younger patients (8.1 +/- 2.0 mmol/l vs 8.0 +/- 2.2 mmol/l p = 0.36), but in older patients admission glucose was higher in women than in men (8.7 +/- 2.1 mmol/l vs 8.4 +/- 2.1 mmol/l p = 0.028). After multivariable analyses, the occurrence of increased admission glucose was comparable between men and women in the younger age group (OR 1.1, 95%CI 0.9-1.5), but increased in women in the older age group (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.7). Both diabetes and hyperglycemia were associated with a higher one-year mortality in both men and women.
The differences between men and women in hyperglycemia and diabetes in patients with STEMI are age dependent and can only be observed in older patients. This may have implications for medical treatment and should be investigated further.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are conflicting data regarding optimal treatment of non-culprit lesions detected during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and multi-vessel disease (MVD). We aimed to investigate whether ischaemia-driven early invasive treatment improves the long-term outcome and prevents major adverse cardiac events (MACE).
121 patients with at least one non-culprit lesion were randomised in a 2:1 manner, 80 were randomised to early fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided PCI (invasive group), and 41 to medical treatment (conservative group). The primary endpoint was MACE at 3 years.
Three-year follow-up was available in 119 patients (98.3 %). There was no significant difference in all-cause mortality between the invasive and conservative strategy, 4 patients (3.4 %) died, all in the invasive group (P = 0.29). Re-infarction occurred in 14 patients (11.8 %) in the invasive group versus none in the conservative group (p = 0.002). Re-PCI was performed in 7 patients (8.9 %) in the invasive group and in 13 patients (32.5 %) in the conservative group (P = 0.001). There was no difference in MACE between these two strategies (35.4 vs 35.0 %, p = 0.96).
In STEMI patients with MVD, early FFR-guided additional revascularisation of the non-culprit lesion did not reduce MACE at three-year follow-up compared with a more conservative strategy. The rate of MACE in the invasive group was predominantly driven by death and re-infarction, whereas in the conservative group the rate of MACE was only driven by repeat interventions.
Preview · Article · May 2012 · Netherlands heart journal: monthly journal of the Netherlands Society of Cardiology and the Netherlands Heart Foundation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), it is uncertain whether atrial fibrillation has prognostic implications. There may be a difference between atrial fibrillation before and after reperfusion therapy.
In patients with STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), ECGs were analysed before and after primary PCI. Of the 1623 patients with electrocardiographic data before primary PCI, 53 patients (3.3%) had atrial fibrillation. Patients with atrial fibrillation were older, were more often female, and less often had anterior MI location. Of the 1728 patients with electrocardiographic data after primary PCI, 52 patients (3.0%) had atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation was more common in older patients and in those with Killip class >1. Also patients with occlusion of the right coronary artery or TIMI flow 0 before primary PCI more commonly had AF after the procedure. Not successful reperfusion was also associated with a higher incidence of AF after primary PCI. Although both atrial fibrillation before and after primary PCI were associated with increased mortality, multivariable analyses, adjusting for differences in age, gender and Killip class on admission, revealed that atrial fibrillation after PCI (OR 3.69, 95% CI 1.87-7.29) but not before PCI (OR 1.86, 95% CI 0.89-3.90) was independent and statistically significantly associated with long-term mortality.
In patients with STEMI, atrial fibrillation after but not before primary PCI has independent prognostic implications. Possibly, atrial fibrillation after the PCI is a symptom of failed reperfusion and a sign of heart failure.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Netherlands heart journal: monthly journal of the Netherlands Society of Cardiology and the Netherlands Heart Foundation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Myocardial necrosis is a time-dependent event. Nevertheless, clinical studies on association between ischemic time and left ventricle function showed inconsistent findings. Aim of current study is to evaluate the association between ischemic time and the post-infarction left ventricular function in ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary PCI. METHODS: In 2529 patients treated with primary PCI, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was measured before discharge (median day 4) by radionuclide ventriculography or by echocardiography if patients had atrial fibrillation. Ischemic time was calculated from symptom onset to first balloon inflation. RESULTS: The correlation between ischemic time as continuous variable and LVEF was significant but weak (P=0.002, r=-0.062). The LVEF of patients in ischemic time intervals of >6, >3-6, and ≤3h was 45.1±11.7%, 44.6±11.9%, and 43.2±12.2%, respectively (P=0.029). Adjusted odds ratio of the ischemic time intervals for LVEF<40% was 1.14 (95% CI 1.00-1.30). TIMI flow 0 before and TIMI flow 3 after PCI were related with both longer ischemic time and low LVEF. CONCLUSION: Ischemic time was associated with post infarction LVEF in patients treated with primary PCI, although this association was weak. Initial TIMI flow and post-PCI TIMI flow played important role in impact of the ischemic time on the LVEF.
No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · International journal of cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This is a prospective, observational study performed in all consecutive ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients who had activated clotting time (ACT) measurement on arrival in the cathlab before coronary angiography. We studied the therapeutic effects of a pre-hospital fixed heparin bolus dose in consecutive patients with STEMI. A total of 1,533 patients received pre-hospital administration of aspirin, high dose clopidogrel (600 mg) and a fixed bolus dose of 5,000 IU unfractionated heparin (UFH), according to the national ambulance protocols. Some patients were also treated with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPI) in the ambulance. A therapeutic ACT range was defined according to the ESC guidelines as 200-250 seconds when patients had GPI pre-treatment and 250-350 seconds when no GPI pre-treatment. Of the 1,533 patients, 216 patients (14.1%) had an ACT within the therapeutic range, 82.3% of the patients had a too low ACT, whereas 3.5% of the patients had a too high ACT. After multivariable analysis, the only independent predictor of a too low ACT was increasing weight (odds ratio 1.02/kg, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.03, p=0.001). Patients with a too low ACT had less often an open infarct related vessel (initial TIMI flow 2,3) as compared to patients with an ACT in range (36.5% vs. 45.9%, p=0.013). In only a minority of patients with STEMI, pre-hospital treatment with a fixed bolus dose UFH is within the therapeutic ACT range. Increased weight is an independent determinant of a too low ACT. We strongly recommend weight adjusted administration of UFH in the ambulance.
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Thrombosis and Haemostasis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although most patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have a good prognosis and can be discharged from hospital very soon, some patients must be admitted longer. We performed the current analysis to assess predictors and the prognostic significance of prolonged hospital stay.
In this prospective observational study, individual data from 2323 patients who survived at least 2 days after primary PCI in our hospital were recorded. Patients in the highest tertile of hospital stay were compared with the other patients. Both predictors and prognostic importance of prolonged hospital stay were evaluated.
Mean admission duration was 6.7 days (standard deviation=6.6). A total of 797 patients had a hospital stay for more than 6 days (highest tertile). Patients with a longer hospital stay were older, more often female, had more often a history of previous myocardial infarction and signs of heart failure on admission, and had more frequently Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction flow 0 before PCI. In addition, a low left ventricular ejection fraction was independently associated with prolonged hospital stay [odds ratio: 2.06 (95% confidence interval: 1.54-2.76)], but with a comparable risk of 1-year mortality [odds ratio: 1.3 (95% confidence interval: 0.8-2.0)]. CONSLUSION: According to this study, a low left ventricular ejection fraction is associated with prolonged hospital stay in patients after primary PCI. Predictors of prolonged hospital stay are age, female sex, previous myocardial infarction, heart failure on admission, and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction flow 0 before PCI.