[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpressed by many epithelial-derived cancer cells with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (mAb) inhibits their growth. A limited number of clinical responses in patients treated with the anti-EGFR mAb, (cetuximab), may reflect variability in EGFR type or signaling in neoplastic cells. This study combines EGFR-targeting with the non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity of anti-CD3 activated T cells (ATC) to enhance receptor-directed cytotoxicity.
ATC from normal and patient donors were expanded ex vivo. Specific cytolytic activity of ATC armed with anti-CD3 x anti-EGFR (EGFRBi) against EGFR-expressing cancer cells derived from lung, pancreas, colon, prostate, brain, skin, or EGFR-negative breast cancer cells was evaluated in (51)Cr release assays. In vivo studies comparing tumor growth delay induced by EGFRBi-armed ATCs or cetuximab were done in severe combined immunodeficient/Beige mice (SCID-Beige) bearing COLO 356/FG pancreatic and LS174T colorectal tumors.
At effector/target ratios from 3.125 to 50, both EGFRBi-armed normal and patient ATC were significantly more cytotoxic, by 23% to 79%, against EGFR-positive cells over ATC, cetuximab, anti-CD3 alone, or ATC armed with irrelevant BiAb directed at CD20. EGFRBi-armed ATC also secreted significantly higher levels of some T(H1)/T(H2) cytokines compared with ATC alone. In mice, i.v. infusions of EGFRBi-armed ATC (0.001 mg equivalent/infusion) were equally effective as cetuximab (1 mg/infusion) alone for significantly delaying growth of established COLO 356/FG but not LS174T tumors compared with mice that received ATC alone or vehicle (P < 0.001).
Combining EGFR antibody targeting with T cell-mediated cytotoxicity may overcome some limitations associated with EGFR-targeting when using cetuximab alone.
Preview · Article · Jan 2006 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bispecific antibodies (BiAbs) are used to enhance targeting of T cells and other cytotoxic agents to tumors while minimizing non-specific tissue toxicities. This study compares the targeting efficacy of 3 BiAbs derived from chemically heteroconjugating a T cell-directed monoclonal antibody (mAb) to 9184, 9187 or 9189, which are mAbs directed at extracellular antigens expressed on human prostate carcinoma cell lines.
9184 (anti-Her2/neu), 9187 (anti-gp55) and 9189 (anti-gp42) were each heteroconjugated to anti-CD3 to produce BiAbs capable of binding to ("arming") anti-CD3 activated T cells (ATC) and redirecting their cytotoxicity to prostate cancer cells expressing the respective antigen. ATC from cancer patients and/or normal subjects were armed with each BiAb and tested in co-cultures with PC-3, DU 145, and LNCaP cells for binding, cytotoxicity, and cytokine secretion.
All 3 tumor-directed mAbs bound to each of the prostate cancer cell lines. ATC armed with 9184Bi statistically augmented cytotoxicity directed at PC-3 and increased IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and GM-CSF secretion as well as induced IFN-gamma EliSpots above that seen for 9187Bi, 9189Bi, ATC alone or ATC armed with an irrelevant BiAb. 9184Bi-armed ATC mediated significant cytotoxicity against LNCaP and DU 145 cells as well. When we armed ATC from 6 cancer patients with 9184Bi, 9184Bi markedly enhanced cytotoxicity of ATC from 5 of the 6 patients.
Arming ATC with BiAbs augments cytotoxicity directed at prostate cancer lines expressing the target antigens. Arming with 9184Bi was the most effective at redirecting cytotoxicity at PC-3 cells and inducing cytokine secretion. As an alternative to mAb therapy with anti-HER2, the HER2 antigen may provide a suitable target for redirecting anti-cancer immune cells, immunobiologicals, or other agents to HRPC.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2005 · Anticancer research