J. B. Natowitz

Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States

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Publications (249)624.87 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In this work, we present a new and general method for measuring the astrophysical S-factor of nuclear reactions in laser-induced plasmas and we apply it to d(d,n)$^{3}$He. The experiment was performed with the Texas Petawatt laser, which delivered 150-270 fs pulses of energy ranging from 90 to 180 J to D$_{2}$ or CD$_{4}$ molecular clusters. After removing the background noise, we used the measured time-of-flight data of energetic deuterium ions to obtain their energy distribution. We derive the S-factor using the measured energy distribution of the ions, the measured volume of the fusion plasma and the measured fusion yields. This method is model-independent in the sense that no assumption on the state of the system is required, but it requires an accurate measurement of the ion energy distribution especially at high energies and of the relevant fusion yields. In the d(d,n)$^{3}$He and $^{3}$He(d,p)$^{4}$He cases discussed here, it is very important to apply the background subtraction for the energetic ions and to measure the fusion yields with high precision. While the available data on both ion distribution and fusion yields allow us to determine with good precision the S-factor in the d+d case (lower Gamow energies), for the d+$^3$He case the data are not precise enough to obtain the S-factor using this method. Our results agree with other experiments within the experimental error, even though smaller values of the S-factor were obtained. This might be due to the plasma environment differing from the beam target conditions in a conventional accelerator experiment.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: In this work we explore the possibility that the motion of the deuterium ions emitted from Coulomb cluster explosions is chaotic enough to resemble thermalization. We analyze the process of nuclear fusion reactions driven by laser-cluster interactions in experiments conducted at the Texas Petawatt laser facility using a mixture of D2+3He and CD4+3He cluster targets. When clusters explode by Coulomb repulsion, the emission of the energetic ions is nearly isotropic. In the framework of cluster Coulomb explosions, we analyze the energy distributions of the ions using a Maxwell- Boltzmann (MB) distribution, a shifted MB distribution (sMB) and the energy distribution derived from a log-normal (LN) size distribution of clusters. We show that the first two distributions reproduce well the experimentally measured ion energy distributions and the number of fusions from d-d and d-3He reactions. The LN distribution is a good representation of the ion kinetic energy distribution well up to high momenta where the noise becomes dominant, but overestimates both the neutron and the proton yields. If the parameters of the LN distributions are chosen to reproduce the fusion yields correctly, the experimentally measured high energy ion spectrum is not well represented. We conclude that the ion kinetic energy distribution is highly chaotic and practically not distinguishable from a thermalized one.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015
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    Matthias Hempel · Kris Hagel · Joseph Natowitz · Gerd Röpke · Stefan Typel
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    ABSTRACT: Cluster formation is a fundamental aspect of the equation of state (EOS) of warm and dense nuclear matter such as can be found in supernovae (SN). Similar matter can be studied in heavy-ion collisions (HIC). We use the experimental data of Qin et al. 2012 to test calculations of cluster formation and the role of in-medium modifications of cluster properties in SN EOSs. For the comparison between theory and experiment we use chemical equilibrium constants as the main observables. This reduces some of the systematic uncertainties and allows deviations from ideal gas behavior to be identified clearly. In the analysis, we carefully account for the differences between matter in SN and HIC. We find that, at the lowest densities, the experiment and all theoretical models are consistent with the ideal gas behavior. At higher densities ideal behavior is clearly ruled out and interaction effects have to be considered. The contributions of continuum correlations are of relevance in the virial expansion and remain a difficult problem to solve at higher densities. We conclude that at the densities and temperatures discussed mean-field interactions of nucleons, inclusion of all relevant light clusters, and a suppression mechanism of clusters at high densities have to be incorporated in the SN EOS.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Physical Review C
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    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · The European Physical Journal Conferences
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    ABSTRACT: We measured the average deuterium cluster size within a mixture of deuterium clusters and helium gas by detecting Rayleigh scattering signals. The average cluster size from the gas mixture was comparable to that from a pure deuterium gas when the total backing pressure and temperature of the gas mixture were the same as those of the pure deuterium gas. According to these measurements, the average size of deuterium clusters depends on the total pressure and not the partial pressure of deuterium in the gas mixture. To characterize the cluster source size further, a Faraday cup was used to measure the average kinetic energy of the ions resulting from Coulomb explosion of deuterium clusters upon irradiation by an intense ultrashort pulse. The deuterium ions indeed acquired a similar amount of energy from the mixture target, corroborating our measurements of the average cluster size. As the addition of helium atoms did not reduce the resulting ion kinetic energies, the reported results confirm the utility of using a known cluster source for beam-target-fusion experiments by introducing a secondary target gas.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Physical Review E
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    ABSTRACT: Symmetry energy, temperature and density at the time of the intermediate mass fragment formation are determined in a self-consistent manner, using the experimentally reconstructed primary hot isotope yields and anti-symmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) simulations. The yields of primary hot fragments are experimentally reconstructed for multifragmentation events in the reaction system $^{64}$Zn + $^{112}$Sn at 40 MeV/nucleon. Using the reconstructed hot isotope yields and an improved method, based on the modified Fisher model, symmetry energy values relative to the apparent temperature, $a_{sym}/T$, are extracted. The extracted values are compared with those of the AMD simulations, extracted in the same way as that for the experiment, with the Gogny interaction with three different density-dependent symmetry energy terms. $a_{sym}/T$ values change according to the density-dependent symmetry energy terms used. Using this relation, the density of the fragmenting system is extracted first. Then symmetry energy and apparent temperature are determined in a self consistent manner in the AMD model simulations. Comparing the calculated $a_{sym}/T$ values and those of the experimental values from the reconstructed yields, $\rho /\rho_{0} = 0.65 \pm 0.02 $, $a_{sym} = 23.1 \pm 0.6$ MeV and $T= 5.0 \pm 0.4$ MeV are evaluated for the fragmenting system experimentally observed in the reaction studied.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Nuclear Physics A
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    ABSTRACT: The mass dependence of the transverse flow in the reactions of Ca-40 + Ca-40 at 35 MeV/nucleon has been determined for emitted isotopes with Z = 1 to 9. The observed flow is compared with that calculated using a constrained molecular dynamics (CoMD) simulation. With the application of the appropriate experimental filter, the general trend of the experimental mass-dependent flow is well reproduced by the simulation employing an effective interaction corresponding to a soft equation of state (K = 200 MeV). The CoMD events are further utilized to study the mechanism of generation of the mass-dependent flow. It is found that the mass-dependent flow is generated by the interplay between the thermal and collective motions under a momentum conservation in the fragmenting system. With the help of the collective-thermal-interplay model, the mass-dependent flow scaled by the reduced mass of fragments A/A(sys) is found to be almost independent of the size of the system.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Physical Review C
  • S. Wuenschel · H. Zheng · K. Hagel · B. Meyer · M. Barbui · E. J. Kim · G. Röpke · J. B. Natowitz

    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Physical Review C
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    R. Wada · S. Wuenschel · K. Hagel · S. Yennello · J. B. Natowitz
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    ABSTRACT: Fermi energy heavy ion collisions provide a valuable tool to research nuclear reaction dynamics and the hot nuclear matter Equation of State (EOS) at sub/supra-normal densities. In this energy regime, multi-fragmentation becomes important and the ejected light particles and intermediate mass fragments (IMFs) with Z > 2 carry a great deal of information on the thermal and chemical evolution of the reaction system under investigation. Existing detectors [11. R. de Souza, Eur. Phys. J. A 30 (2006) 275.[CrossRef], [Web of Science ®]View all references] include those with excellent isotopic resolution with limited angular coverage or excellent geometric acceptance with moderate isotopic resolution. Much information has been extracted from experiments performed with these detectors [22. B. A. Li, Phys. Rep. 464 (2008) 113.[CrossRef], [Web of Science ®]View all references–99. B. Davin, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 473 (2001) 302.[CrossRef], [Web of Science ®]View all references]. Ideally, a detector array with both excellent isotopic resolution and with a nearly 4π angular coverage of discrete telescopes with a high granularity is desirable. NIMROD–ISiS at the Cyclotron Institute, TAMU, is designed for such purposes and provides a powerful detector array capable of both charged particle and neutron detection in one apparatus.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014
  • S. Wuenschel · H. Zheng · K. Hagel · B. Meyer · M. Barbui · E. J. Kim · G. Röpke · J. B. Natowitz
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    ABSTRACT: Ternary fission yields in the reaction 241Pu(nth,f) are calculated using a new model which assumes a nucleation-time moderated chemical equilibrium in the low density matter which constitutes the neck region of the scissioning system. The temperature, density, proton fraction and fission time required to fit the experimental data are derived and discussed. A reasonably good fit to the experimental data is obtained. This model provides a natural explanation for the observed yields of heavier isotopes relative to those of the lighter isotopes, the observation of low proton yields relative to 2H and 3H yields and the non-observation of 3He, all features which are shared by similar thermal neutron induced and spontaneous fissioning systems.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Physical Review C
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    ABSTRACT: The characteristic properties of the hot nuclear matter existing at the time of fragment formation in the multifragmentation events produced in the reaction $^{64}$Zn + $^{112}$Sn at 40 MeV/nucleon are studied. A kinematical focusing method is employed to determine the multiplicities of evaporated light particles, associated with isotopically identified detected fragments. From these data the primary isotopic yield distributions are reconstructed using a Monte Carlo method. The reconstructed yield distributions are in good agreement with the primary isotope distributions obtained from AMD transport model simulations. Utilizing the reconstructed yields, power distribution, Landau free energy, characteristic properties of the emitting source are examined. The primary mass distributions exhibit a power law distribution with the critical exponent, $A^{-2.3}$, for $A \geq 15$ isotopes, but significantly deviates from that for the lighter isotopes. Landau free energy plots show no strong signature of the first order phase transition. Based on the Modified Fisher Model, the ratios of the Coulomb and symmetry energy coefficients relative to the temperature, $a_{c}/T$ and $a_{sym}/T$, are extracted as a function of A. The extracted $a_{sym}/T$ values are compared with results of the AMD simulations using Gogny interactions with different density dependencies of the symmetry energy term. The calculated $a_{sym}/T$ values show a close relation to the symmetry energy at the density at the time of the fragment formation. From this relation the density of the fragmenting source is determined to be $\rho /\rho_{0} = (0.63 \pm 0.03 )$. Using this density, the symmetry energy coefficient and the temperature of fragmenting source are determined in a self-consistent manner as $a_{sym} = (24.7 \pm 3.4) MeV$ and $T=(4.9 \pm 0.2)$ MeV.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Physical Review C
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    X. Liu · W. Lin · R. Wada · M. Huang · Z. Chen · G. Q. Xiao · S. Zhang · X. Jin · J. Liu · F. Shi · P. Ren · H. Zheng · J. B. Natowitz · A. Bonasera
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    ABSTRACT: The density and temperature of a fragmenting system in a multifragmentation process are evaluated in a self-consistent manner using ratios between the ratio of the symmetry energy coefficient relative to the temperature, a_{sym}/T, extracted from the fragment yields generated by antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) simulations for central collisions of ^{40}Ca + ^{40}Ca at 35 MeV/nucleon. The a_{sym}/T values are extracted from all isotope yields by an improved method based on the Modified Fisher Model (MFM). The ratios of a_{sym}/T obtained, using interactions with different density dependencies of the symmetry energy term, reflect the ratios of the symmetry energy at the density of fragment formation. Using this correlation, the density is found to be \rho/\rho_0 = 0.66 \pm 0.02. The symmetry energy values for each interaction are determined at this density. With these values, temperature values are extracted as a function of isotope mass A. The extracted temperature values are compared with those evaluated from the fluctuation thermometer with a radial flow correction.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014
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    S. Wuenschel · H. Zheng · K. Hagel · B. Meyer · M. Barbui · E. J. Kim · G. Roepke · J. B. Natowitz
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    ABSTRACT: Ternary fission yields in the reaction 241Pu(nth,f) are calculated using a new model which assumes a nucleation-time moderated chemical equilibrium in the low density matter which constitutes the neck region of the scissioning system. The temperature, density, proton fraction and fission time required to fit the experimental data are derived and discussed. A reasonably good fit to the experimental data is obtained. This model provides a natural explanation for the observed yields of heavier isotopes relative to those of the lighter isotopes, the observation of low proton yields relative to 2H and 3H yields and the non-observation of 3He, all features which are shared by similar thermal neutron induced and spontaneous fissioning systems.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2014
  • X. Liu · W. Lin · R. Wada · M. Huang · Z. Chen · G. Q. Xiao · S. Zhang · X. Jin · J. Liu · F. Shi · P. Ren · H. Zheng · J. B. Natowitz · A. Bonasera
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The density and temperature of a fragmenting system in a multifragmentation process are evaluated in a self-consistent manner using ratios between the ratio of the symmetry energy coefficient relative to the temperature, a_{sym}/T, extracted from the fragment yields generated by antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) simulations for central collisions of ^{40}Ca + ^{40}Ca at 35 MeV/nucleon. The a_{sym}/T values are extracted from all isotope yields by an improved method based on the Modified Fisher Model (MFM). The ratios of a_{sym}/T obtained, using interactions with different density dependencies of the symmetry energy term, reflect the ratios of the symmetry energy at the density of fragment formation. Using this correlation, the density is found to be \rho/\rho_0 = 0.66 \pm 0.02. The symmetry energy values for each interaction are determined at this density. With these values, temperature values are extracted as a function of isotope mass A. The extracted temperature values are compared with those evaluated from the fluctuation thermometer with a radial flow correction.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We explored alpha clustering in 24Mg using the reaction 20Ne+α and the Thick Target Inverse Kinematics (TTIK) technique. 20Ne beams of energy 3.7 AMeV and 11 AMeV were delivered by the K150 cyclotron at Texas A&M; University. The reaction chamber was filled with 4He gas at a pressure sufficient to stop the beam before the detectors. The energy of the light reaction products was measured by three silicon detector telescopes. The time relative to the cyclotron radiofrequency was also measured. For the first time the TTIK method was used to study both single and multiple α-particle decays. New results were obtained on elastic resonant α scattering, as well as on inelastic processes leading to high excitation energy systems decaying by multiple α-particle emission. Preliminary results will be shown on events with α-multiplicity one and two.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · The European Physical Journal Conferences
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    ABSTRACT: For the first time primary hot isotope distributions are experimentally reconstructed in intermediate heavy ion collisions and used with antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) calculations to determine density, temperature and symmetry energy coefficient in a self-consistent manner. A kinematical focusing method is employed to reconstruct the primary hot fragment yield distributions for multifragmentation events observed in the reaction system $^{64}$Zn + $^{112}$Sn at 40 MeV/nucleon.The reconstructed yield distributions are in good agreement with the primary isotope distributions of AMD simulations. The experimentally extracted values of the symmetry energy coefficient relative to the temperature, $a_{sym}/T$, are compared with those of the AMD simulations with different density dependence of the symmetry energy term.The calculated $a_{sym}/T$ values changes according to the different interactions. By comparison of the experimental values of $a_{sym}/T$ with those of alculations, the density of the source at fragment formation was determined to be $\rho /\rho_{0} = (0.63 \pm 0.03 )$. Using this density, the symmetry energy coefficient and the temperature are determined in a self-consistent manner as $a_{sym} = (23.5 \pm 1.5) MeV$ and $T=(5.1 \pm 0.1)$ MeV.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Physical Review C
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    K. Hagel · J. B. Natowitz · G. Röpke
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    ABSTRACT: The symmetry energy of nuclear matter is a fundamental ingredient in the investigation of exotic nuclei, heavy-ion collisions and astrophysical phenomena. A recently developed quantum statistical (QS) approach that takes the formation of clusters into account predicts low density symmetry energies far above the usually quoted mean field limits. A consistent description of the symmetry energy has been developed that joins the correct low-density limit with values calculated from quasi-particle approaches valid near the saturation density. The results are confronted with experimental values for free symmetry energies and internal symmetry energies, determined at sub-saturation densities and temperatures below 10 MeV using data from heavy-ion collisions. There is very good agreement between the experimental symmetry energy values and those calculated in the QS approach
    Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · European Physical Journal A
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    ABSTRACT: In the last decade, the availability in high-intensity laser beams capable of producing plasmas with ion energies large enough to induce nuclear reactions has opened new research paths in nuclear physics. We studied the reactions 3He(d, p)4He and d(d,n)3He at temperatures of few keV in a plasma, generated by the interaction of intense ultrafast laser pulses with molecular deuterium or deuterated-methane clusters mixed with 3He atoms. The yield of 14.7 MeV protons from the 3He(d, p)4He reaction was used to extract the astrophysical S factor. Results of the experiment performed at the Center for High Energy Density Science at The University of Texas at Austin will be presented.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · AIP Conference Proceedings
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    ABSTRACT: We report on experiments in which the Texas Petawatt laser irradiated a mixture of deuterium or deuterated methane clusters and helium-3 gas, generating three types of nuclear fusion reactions: D(d,^{3}He)n, D(d,t)p, and ^{3}He(d,p)^{4}He. We measured the yields of fusion neutrons and protons from these reactions and found them to agree with yields based on a simple cylindrical plasma model using known cross sections and measured plasma parameters. Within our measurement errors, the fusion products were isotropically distributed. Plasma temperatures, important for the cross sections, were determined by two independent methods: (1) deuterium ion time of flight and (2) utilizing the ratio of neutron yield to proton yield from D(d,^{3}He)n and ^{3}He(d,p)^{4}He reactions, respectively. This experiment produced the highest ion temperature ever achieved with laser-irradiated deuterium clusters.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Physical Review E
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    ABSTRACT: The plasma astrophysical S factor for the 3He(D, p)4He fusion reaction was measured for the first time at temperatures of few keV, using the interaction of intense ultrafast laser pulses with molecular deuterium clusters mixed with 3He atoms. Different proportions of D2 and 3He or CD4 and 3He were mixed in the gas jet target in order to allow the measurement of the cross-section for the 3He(D, p)4He reaction. The yield of 14.7 MeV protons from the 3He(D, p)4He reaction was measured in order to extract the astrophysical S factor at low energies. Our result is in agreement with other S factor parameterizations found in the literature.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Physical Review Letters

Publication Stats

4k Citations
624.87 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1970-2015
    • Texas A&M University
      • Department of Chemistry
      College Station, Texas, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Texas at Austin
      • Department of Physics
      Austin, Texas, United States
  • 2004
    • Tohoku University
      • Department of Physics
      Sendai-shi, Miyagi, Japan
  • 2000
    • Jagiellonian University
      Cracovia, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland
  • 1994-2000
    • Alabama A & M University
      Huntsville, Alabama, United States
  • 1999
    • University of Padova
      • Department of Information Engineering
      Padua, Veneto, Italy
  • 1990-1991
    • Texas A&M University System
      College Station, Texas, United States
  • 1989
    • INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare
      • Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro LNL
      Frascati, Latium, Italy
  • 1986
    • Hope College
      • Department of Physics
      Holland, Michigan, United States
  • 1982
    • Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany