[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tape stripping is an established procedure in stratum corneum (SC) physiology research. Adhesive films are pressed to the surface of the skin and then removed. The superficial layers of the SC adhere to the film and are accessible for further investigations. Although this method is widely used, only scant information about standardization is known. Various protocols are used but are difficult to compare.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the type of tape, pressure, time, anatomical site and type of applied pressure.
Twelve healthy volunteers (age range 20-31 years) were entered in a randomized, controlled study with sequential tape stripping at the volar forearm, upper arm, cheek and back. Different methods (roller, stamp, thumb, stretched skin), total duration of applied pressure (2 s, 10 s), degrees of pressure (2 N stamp, 7 N stamp) and different tapes (D-Squame, Corneofix, Blenderm) were investigated and the impact on barrier function assessed by transepidermal water loss measurements. Furthermore, measurements of SC hydration, skin colour and skin surface pH were performed. Spectroscopic measurements and a Bradford protein assay to determine the mass of removed SC were carried out in parallel.
The degree of barrier disruption, irritation and SC cohesion is influenced by the character of adhesive tapes, total duration of applied pressure (2 s, 10 s; 2 N, 7 N), the kind of method for pressure application (roller, stamp, thumb, stretched skin), anatomical site and condition before stripping (occlusion vs. nonocclusion). The spectroscopic assessment and Bradford protein assay determination showed a significant correlation (P < 0.0001; r = 0.7041).
The present study showed significant differences between different factors on controlled barrier disruption. The results indicate the importance of defining these factors when a study is initiated and when results of different studies should be compared. Based on our data we propose using a 2 N stamp for a duration of 2 s on 15 sequential D-Squame tape strips on the volar forearm and then discarding the first and second strips. This approach allows the performance of a standardized study with a reasonable amount of resources.
No preview · Article · Mar 2007 · British Journal of Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: We describe a 20-year old woman with retarded healing after a melanoma excision. After short time application of several creams containing antiseptic, antibiotic and anti-inflammatory ingredients she developed a severe contact dermatitis. Patch testing revealed sensitizations against corticosteroids, an antibiotic and quinoline.
Conclusion: In our case multiple relevant contact sensitizations appeared within a short period of two months after excision of a malignant tumour.
No preview · Article · Sep 2005 · Skin Research and Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interaction between potential irritants in the workplace might be important because workers are not usually exposed to a single irritant, but to multiple potentially harmful substances. Physical irritant contact dermatitis caused by friction or mechanical abrasion is a common occupational dermatosis. Prolonged water exposure by occlusion is also common in the workplace. Several studies have revealed the negative effect of the common anionic detergent sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) on permeability barrier function.
To study the additive impairment of permeability barrier function by mechanical irritation combined with 0.5% SLS or prolonged water exposure by occlusion, as models of mild irritation.
The volar forearms of 20 healthy volunteers were exposed to mechanical irritation and occlusion with water or 0.5% SLS for four consecutive days in a combined tandem repeated irritation test (TRIT). Permeability barrier function was measured with a Tewameter TM 210. Irritation was assessed with a Chromameter CR 300 and a visual score.
Barrier disruption in our model was rated as follows: occlusion with SLS and mechanical irritation > occlusion with SLS > occlusion with water and mechanical irritation > mechanical irritation and occlusion with water > occlusion with a glove and mechanical irritation > mechanical irritation > occlusion with water. Barrier disruption caused by occlusion or mechanical irritation was enhanced by the tandem application. The choice of irritant under occlusion, time of occlusion and order of tandem application all affected the degree of barrier disruption. Evaporimetry was able to detect early stages in the development of an irritant reaction before it became visible. Chromametry was not able to detect this early response.
Physical irritants (friction, abrasive grains, occlusion) and detergents such as SLS represent a significant irritation risk and should be minimized, especially when acting together, as shown in our TRIT model.
No preview · Article · Jul 2005 · British Journal of Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Combined exposure to dry climatic conditions and local heat sources together with detergents represents a common workplace situation. These conditions may support the induction of chronic barrier disruption leading subsequently to irritant contact dermatitis (ICD).
To test the irritant and barrier disrupting properties of air flow at different temperatures and velocities.
Using noninvasive biophysical measurements such as transepidermal water loss (TEWL) (TM 210; Courage & Khazaka, Cologne, Germany) we assessed the effects of short-term exposure to air flow at different temperatures (24 degrees C and 43 degrees C) in combination with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) 0.5% on the skin of 20 healthy volunteers in a tandem repeated irritation test. Chromametry was used to control the accuracy of the SLS irritation model.
In our study air flow alone did not lead to a significant increase in TEWL values. Sequential treatment with air flow and SLS led to an impairment of barrier function and irritation stronger than that produced by SLS alone. The two different air flow temperatures led to different skin temperatures but had no influence on permeability barrier function.
Warm air flow has an additional effect on the SLS-induced barrier disruption in a tandem irritation test with sequential exposure to SLS/air flow. This combination is suspected to promote ICD in workplace and household situations, especially in short-term applications as tested in our model.
No preview · Article · Jun 2005 · British Journal of Dermatology