[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The comparative effects of diet supplementation with 10% saturated fat rich in 12:0 and 14:0 fatty acids (coconut oil), without and with 1% added cholesterol, and with 10% unsaturated fat rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (menhaden oil) on cholesterol metabolism in neonatal chicks were examined to clarify the different mechanisms of their hyper- and hypolipidemic action. Supplementation of coconut oil produced a significant hypercholesterolemia after 7 days of treatment, with a similar increase in the amount of both free and esterified cholesterol. Supplementation of coconut oil plus cholesterol produced a higher increase of plasma cholesterol levels (approximately two to three times higher than those found with standard diet). However, supplementation of menhaden oil induced a significant decrease in total cholesterol after only 2 weeks of treatment. Levels of plasma triglycerides did not change by coconut oil addition to the diet, but a significant increase was observed after coconut oil plus cholesterol feeding. Menhaden oil produced a transient decrease in plasma triglycerides. Hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity did not change with coconut oil treatment. However, both coconut oil plus cholesterol and menhaden oil supplemented diets drastically decreased reductase activity after 1 week of dietary manipulation. These results show that different nutrients with the same inhibitory effect on reductase activity produced opposite effects on plasma cholesterol content, suggesting the existence of important differences in the regulatory mechanisms implied in cholesterol biosynthesis and its accumulation in plasma.
Preview · Article · Apr 1999 · The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nature of the synergism between dietary factors and the development of atherosclerosis has not been fully defined. Our studies showed that simultaneous supplementation of 10% saturated fat rich in 12:0 and 14:0 fatty acids (coconut oil) plus 1% cholesterol to the diet produced a sharp increase of plasma cholesterol, indicating a synergic influence of both dietary constituents. This increase was especially patent in the VLDL fraction, modifying the distribution of other lipid components between the core and the surface of these particles. These changes are consistent with the atherogenic function of VLDL and its responsiveness to dietary manipulation.
Preview · Article · Jul 1998 · The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Supplementation of 10 or 20% coconut oil in the diet for 1-2 weeks produced a significant hypercholesterolemia in neonatal chicks. Plasma triacylglycerol concentration significantly increased after the addition of 20% coconut oil for 2 weeks. These results show that newborn chicks are more sensitive to saturated fatty acids from coconut oil than adult animals. The effects of this saturated fat on lipoprotein composition were studied for the first 1-2 weeks of neonatal chick life. Coconut oil supplementation in the diet (20%) for 2 weeks increased cholesterol concentration in all the lipoprotein fractions, while 10% coconut oil only increased cholesterol in low-density and very-low-density lipoproteins, an increase that was significant after 1 week of treatment. Similar results were obtained for triacylglycerol concentration after 2 weeks of treatment. Changes in phospholipid and total protein levels were less profound. Coconut oil decreased low-density and very-low-density lipoprotein fluidity, measured as total cholesterol/phospholipid ratio. Changes in esterified cholesterol/phospholipid and triacylglycerol/phospholipid ratios suggest that coconut oil affects the distribution of lipid components in the core of very-low-density particles. Likewise, the esterified cholesterol/triacylglycerol ratio was clearly increased in the low-density, and especially in the very-low-density, fraction after the first week of coconut oil feeding. Our results show that neonatal chick provides a suitable model in which to study the role of very-low-density lipoproteins in atherogenesis and the rapid response to saturated fatty acids with 12-14 carbons.
No preview · Article · May 1996 · Journal of Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Supplementation of 2% cholesterol to the diet produced a significant hypercholesterolemia in adult chicks after 3 days of treatment. The amounts of both free and esterified cholesterol were about 3-fold in cholesterol fed chicks than those found in control animals. In newborn chicks, a significant hypercholesterolemia was observed only after 15 days of the same treatment. Only esterified cholesterol was increased in these conditions. Coconut oil (10 or 20%) supplementation to the diet produced a significant increase of plasma total cholesterol levels after 7 days of treatment of newborn chicks. Both free and esterified forms resulted increased in these conditions. A significant increase of plasma triacylglycerol content was observed 14 days after 20% coconut oil feeding. Contrary to that observed after cholesterol feeding, the hypercholesterolemic effect of coconut oil was not accompanied by changes in the levels of liver cholesterol.
No preview · Article · Jan 1994 · Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A Physiology