[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The most common methods for obtaining human resting metabolic rate (RMR) use either a ventilated hood connected to a metabolic cart (VH_MC) or calculation by many prediction equations utilizing the person's height and weight. These methods may be inherently inaccurate. The objective of this study is to compare the accuracy for the measurement of RMR by three methods: a new whole room indirect calorimeter specific for this purpose (RMR_WRIC), VH_MC and calculation by the Mifflin equation (ME). First, the VH_MC (Vmax Encore 2900, Carefusion Inc, San Diego, CA) and RMR_WRIC (Promethion GA-6/FG-1, Sable Systems Intl, Las Vegas, NV) were subjected to 10, one-hour ethanol (99.8 % purity) and propane (99.5 % purity) combustion tests, respectively, for simulated metabolic measurements. Thereafter, 40 healthy adults (22 M/18 F, 78.0 ± 24.5 kg, BMI = 25.6 ± 4.8, age 36.6 ± 13.4 years) had one-hour RMR (kcal), ventilation (liters) rates of oxygen (VO2), carbon dioxide (VCO2) and RQ (VCO2/VO2) measured after a 12-h fast with both the VH_ MC and the RMR_WRIC in a randomized fashion. The resting state was documented by heart rate. The RMR was also calculated using the ME, which was compared to both the RMR_WRIC and the VH_MC. All simulated and human metabolic data were extrapolated to 24-h and analyzed (SPSS, Ver. 22).
Comparing stoichiometry to actual combustion, the VH_MC underestimated simulated RMR (p < 0.05), VO2 (p < 0.05), VCO2 (p < 0.05) and the RQ. Similarly the RMR_WRIC underestimated simulated RMR (p < 0.05) and VO2 while overestimating VCO2 and the RQ. There was much greater variability in the simulated metabolic data between combustion and the VH_MC as compared to that of the RMR_WRIC. With regards to the volunteers, the RMR, RQ, VO2 and VCO2 determined by the VH_MC tended to be lower in comparison to these measurements determined by the RMR_WRIC. Finally, RMR calculated utilizing the ME was significantly (p < 0.05) less than the RMR_WRIC but similar to that obtained by the VH_MC.
The RMR_WRIC was more accurate and precise than either the VH_MC or ME, which has implications for determining energy requirements for individuals participating in weight loss or nutrition rehabilitation programs.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Nutrition & Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Improvements in diet can prevent obesity and type 2 diabetes. Although policy changes provide a foundation for improvement at the population level, evidence for the effectiveness of such changes is slim. This study summarizes the literature on recent efforts in the United States to change food-related policies to prevent obesity and diabetes among adults.
We conducted a systematic review of evidence of the impact of food policies. Websites of government, academic, and nonprofit organizations were scanned to generate a typology of food-related policies, which we classified into 18 categories. A key-word search and a search of policy reports identified empirical evaluation studies of these categories. Analyses were limited to strategies with 10 or more reports. Of 422 articles identified, 94 met these criteria. Using publication date, study design, study quality, and dietary outcomes assessed, we evaluated the strength of evidence for each strategy in 3 assessment categories: time period, quality, and study design.
Five strategies yielded 10 or more reports. Only 2 of the 5 strategies, menu labeling and taxes on unhealthy foods, had 50% or more studies with positive findings in at least 2 of 3 assessment categories. Most studies used methods that were rated medium quality. Although the number of published studies increased over 11 years, study quality did not show any clear trend nor did it vary by strategy.
Researchers and policy makers can improve the quality and rigor of policy evaluations to synthesize existing evidence and develop better methods for gleaning policy guidance from the ample but imperfect data available.
Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Preventing chronic disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary components have potential to arrest or modify chronic disease processes including obesity, cancer, and comorbidities. However, clinical research to translate mechanistic nutrition data into clinical interventions is needed. We have developed a one-year transitional postdoctoral curriculum to prepare nutrition scientists in the language and practice of medicine and in clinical research methodology before undertaking independent research. Candidates with an earned doctorate in nutrition science receive intensive, didactic training at the interface of nutrition and medicine, participate in supervised medical observerships, and join ongoing clinical research. To date, we have trained four postdoctoral fellows. Formative evaluation revealed several learning barriers to this training, including deficits in prior medical science knowledge and diverse perceptions of the role of the translational nutrition scientist. Several innovative techniques to address these barriers are discussed. We propose the fact that this “train the trainer” approach has potential to create a new translational nutrition researcher competent to identify clinical problems, collaborate with clinicians and researchers, and incorporate nutrition science across disciplines from “bench to bedside.” We also expect the translational nutrition scientist to serve as an expert resource to the medical team in use of nutrition as adjuvant therapy for the prevention and management of chronic disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether a weight-maintaining, moderate (50%) high-fat diet is deleterious to insulin sensitivity in healthy premenopausal women.
23 African-American and non-Hispanic white, healthy, overweight, and obese premenopausal women recruited in New York City, USA, fed either a eucaloric, 1-week long high-fat (50% of total Kcal from fat) diet or a eucaloric, 1-week long low-fat (30% of total Kcal from fat) diet, assigned in a randomized crossover design.
Peripheral insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic (80 mU/m(2)/min) clamp measured during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, at the end of each diet period.
Peripheral insulin sensitivity (mg kg/fat-free mass/min (µU/mL)×10(-1)) was not decreased after the high-fat diet vs the low-fat diet (0.09±0.01 vs 0.08±0.01, p=0.09, respectively) in the combined group of African-American and white women, with no significant diet by race interaction (p=0.6). Metabolic flexibility (change in substrate utilization, ΔNPRQ, in response to insulin during the clamp) was similarly unaltered by the diet (0.12±0.01 vs 0.11, p=0.48, for the high-fat diet vs the low-fat diet, respectively) in the combined group of women, with no significant diet by race interaction (p=0.9). African-American women had a lower insulin clearance compared with the white women, regardless of the diet (p<0.05).
We conclude that a short term (1 week), moderate (50%), eucaloric high-fat diet does not lower peripheral insulin sensitivity in healthy, overweight and obese premenopausal women.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Screening guidelines are used to help identify prediabetes and diabetes before implementing evidence-based prevention and treatment interventions. We examined screening practices benchmarking against two US guidelines, and the capacity of each guideline to identify dysglycemia.
Using 2007-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, we analyzed nationally-representative, cross-sectional data from 5,813 fasting non-pregnant adults aged ≥20 years without self-reported diabetes. We examined proportions of adults eligible for diagnostic glucose testing and those who self-reported receiving testing in the past three years, as recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF-2008) guidelines. For each screening guideline, we also assessed sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative predictive values in identifying dysglycemia (defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥100 mg/dl or hemoglobin A1c ≥5.7%).
In 2007-2012, 73.0% and 23.7% of US adults without diagnosed diabetes met ADA and USPSTF-2008 criteria for screening, respectively; and 91.5% had at least one major risk factor for diabetes. Of those ADA- or USPSTF-eligible adults, about 51% reported being tested within the past three years. Eligible individuals not tested were more likely to be lower educated, poorer, uninsured, or have no usual place of care compared to tested eligible adults. Among adults with ≥1 major risk factor, 45.7% reported being tested, and dysglycemia yields (i.e., PPV) ranged from 45.8% (high-risk ethnicity) to 72.6% (self-reported prediabetes). ADA criteria and having any risk factor were more sensitive than the USPSTF-2008 guideline (88.8-97.7% vs. 31.0%) but less specific (13.5-39.7% vs. 82.1%) in recommending glucose testing, resulting in lower PPVs (47.7-54.4% vs. 58.4%).
Diverging recommendations and variable performance of different guidelines may be impeding national diabetes prevention and treatment efforts. Efforts to align screening recommendations may result in earlier identification of adults at high risk for prediabetes and diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatic fat is related to insulin resistance (IR) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in HIV+ and uninfected individuals. Growth hormone (GH) reduces VAT but increases IR. We evaluated the effects of recombinant human GH (rhGH) and rosiglitazone (Rosi) on hepatic fat in a substudy of a randomized controlled trial.
HIV+ subjects with abdominal obesity and IR (QUICKI < 0.33) were randomized to rhGH 3 mg daily, Rosi 4 mg twice daily, the combination, or double placebo. Hepatic fat was measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), visceral fat by MRI, and IR by frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance tests at baseline and week 12.
31 subjects were studied at both time points. Significant correlations between hepatic fat and VAT (r = 0.41, p=0.02) and QUICKI (r = 0.39, p<0.05) were seen at baseline. Insulin resistance rose with rhGH but not Rosi. When rhGH treatment groups were combined, hepatic fat expressed as percent change decreased significantly (p<0.05) but did not change in Rosi (p=0.71). There were no correlations between changes in hepatic fat and VAT (p=0.4) or QUICKI (p=0.6). In a substudy of 21 subjects, a trend was noticed between changes in hepatic fat and serum IGF-1 (p=0.09).
Hepatic fat correlates significantly with both VAT and IR, but changes in hepatic fat do not correlate with changes in VAT and glucose metabolism. Hepatic fat content is reduced by rhGH but Rosi has no effect. These results suggest an independent effect of growth hormone or IGF-1 on hepatic fat. The study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00130286).
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Antiviral therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Objectives
The extent to which alterations in energy expenditure (EE) in response to sleep restriction contribute to the short sleep-obesity relationship is not clearly defined. Short sleep may induce changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR), thermic effect of food (TEF), and postprandial substrate oxidation.
Ten females (age and BMI: 22-43 y and 23.4-28 kg/m2) completed a randomized, crossover study assessing the effects of short (4 h/night) and habitual (8 h/night) sleep duration on fasting and postprandial RMR and respiratory quotient (RQ). Measurements were taken after 3 nights using whole-room indirect calorimetry. The TEF was assessed over a 6-h period following consumption of a high-fat liquid meal.
Short vs. habitual sleep did not affect RMR (1.01 ± 0.05 and 0.97 ± 0.04 kcal/min; p=0.23). Fasting RQ was significantly lower after short vs. habitual sleep (0.84 ± 0.01 and 0.88 ± 0.01; p=0.028). Postprandial EE (short: 1.13 ± 0.04 and habitual: 1.10 ± 0.04, p=0.09) and RQ (short: 0.88 ± 0.01 and habitual: 0.88 ± 0.01, p=0.50) after the high-fat meal were not different between conditions. TEF was similar between conditions (0.24 ± 0.02 kcal/min in both; p=0.98), as was the ~6-h incremental area under the curve (1.16 ± 0.10 and 1.17 ± 0.09 kcal/min x 356 min after short and habitual sleep, respectively; p=0.92).
Current findings observed in non-obese healthy premenopausal women do not support the hypothesis that alterations in TEF and postprandial substrate oxidation are major contributors to the higher rate of obesity observed in short sleepers. In exploring a role of sleep duration on EE, research should focus on potential alterations in physical activity to explain the increased obesity risk in short sleepers.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · International journal of obesity (2005)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The overexpression of the adipose gene (adp/WDTC1) in mice inhibits lipid accumulation and improves the metabolic profile. Subcutaneous fat adp expression in humans and its relation to metabolic parameters was evaluated.
Design and methods:
Abdominal subcutaneous fat adp expression, insulin sensitivity (clamp), and respiratory quotient (RQ; indirect calorimetry) were assessed in: 36 obese and 56 BMI-, race-, and sex-matched type 2 diabetic volunteers (Look AHEAD Adipose Ancillary Study); 37 nondiabetic Pima Indians including obese (n = 18) and nonobese (n = 19) subjects and; 62 nonobese nondiabetic subjects at the Pennington Center in the ADAPT study.
In the Look AHEAD Study, adp expression normalized for cyclophilin B was higher in males versus females (1.27 ± 0.06 vs. 1.11 ± 0.04; P < 0.01) but not after controlling for body fat. Adp expression was not influenced by the presence of diabetes but was related to body fat (r = -0.23; P = 0.03), insulin sensitivity (r = 0.23; P = 0.03) and fasting/insulin-stimulated RQ (r = 0.31 and 0.33; P < 0.01). In Pima Indians, adp expression was also higher in males versus females (1.00 ± 0.05 vs. 0.77 ± 0.05; P = 0.02) and higher in nonobese versus obese (1.02 ± 0.05 vs. 0.80 ± 0.06; P = 0.03). In the ADAPT study, there was no difference in adp expression between males and females.
Consistent with animal studies, our results suggest that high adp expression in human adipose tissue is associated with lower adiposity and enhanced glucose utilization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic evidence has shown a link between short sleep and obesity. Clinical studies suggest a role of increased energy intake in this relation, whereas the contributions of energy expenditure (EE) and substrate utilization are less clearly defined.
Our aim was to investigate the effects of sleep curtailment on 24-h EE and respiratory quotient (RQ) by using whole-room indirect calorimetry under fixed-meal conditions.
Ten females aged 22-43 y with a BMI (in kg/m(2)) of 23.4-27.5 completed a randomized, crossover study. Participants were studied under short- (4 h/night) and habitual- (8 h/night) sleep conditions for 3 d, with a 4-wk washout period between visits. Standardized weight-maintenance meals were served at 0800, 1200, and 1900 with a snack at 1600. Measures included EE and RQ during the sleep episode on day 2 and continuously over 23 h on day 3.
Short compared with habitual sleep resulted in significantly higher (±SEM) 24-h EE (1914.0 ± 62.4 kcal compared with 1822.1 ± 43.8 kcal; P = 0.012). EE during the scheduled sleep episode (0100-0500 and 2300-0700 in short- and habitual-sleep conditions, respectively) and across the waking episode (0800-2300) were unaffected by sleep restriction. RQ was unaffected by sleep restriction.
Short compared with habitual sleep is associated with an increased 24-h EE of ∼92 kcal (∼5%)-lower than the increased energy intake observed in prior sleep-curtailment studies. This finding supports the hypothesis that short sleep may predispose to weight gain as a result of an increase in energy intake that is beyond the modest energy costs associated with prolonged nocturnal wakefulness. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01751581.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) reduces visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume in HIV-infected patients but can worsen glucose homeostasis and lipoatrophy. We aimed to determine if adding rosiglitazone to rhGH would abrogate the adverse effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity (SI) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume.
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial using a 2×2 factorial design in which HIV-infected subjects with abdominal obesity and insulin resistance were randomized to rhGH 3 mg daily, rosiglitazone 4 mg twice daily, combination rhGH + rosiglitazone, or double placebo (control) for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in SI by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test from entry to week 12. Body composition was assessed by whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dual Xray absorptiometry (DEXA). Seventy-seven subjects were randomized of whom 72 initiated study drugs. Change in SI from entry to week 12 differed across the 4 arms by 1-way ANCOVA (P = 0.02); by pair-wise comparisons, only rhGH (decreasing SI; P = 0.03) differed significantly from control. Changes from entry to week 12 in fasting glucose and glucose area under the curve on 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test differed across arms (1-way ANCOVA P = 0.004), increasing in the rhGH arm relative to control. VAT decreased significantly in the rhGH arms (-17.5% in rhGH/rosiglitazone and -22.7% in rhGH) but not in the rosiglitazone alone (-2.5%) or control arms (-1.9%). SAT did not change significantly in any arm. DEXA results were consistent with the MRI data. There was no significant rhGH x rosiglitazone interaction for any body composition parameter.
The addition of rosiglitazone abrogated the adverse effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance while not significantly modifying the lowering effect of rhGH on VAT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To address the increasing burden of diabetes in New York City, we designed 2 electronic health records (EHRs)-facilitated diabetes management systems to be implemented in 6 primary care practices on the West Side of Manhattan, a standard system and an enhanced system. The standard system includes screening for diabetes. The enhanced system includes screening and ensures close patient follow-up; it applies principles of the chronic care model, including community-clinic linkages, to the management of patients newly diagnosed with diabetes and prediabetes through screening. We will stagger implementation of the enhanced system across the 6 clinics allowing comparison, through a quasi-experimental design (pre-post difference with a control group), of patients treated in the enhanced system with similar patients treated in the standard system. The findings could inform health system practices at multiple levels and influence the integration of community resources into routine diabetes care.
Preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Preventing chronic disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent research has shown an inverse relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) and bone mineral density (BMD). There is a lack of evidence at the macro-imaging level to establish whether increased BMAT is a cause or effect of bone loss. This cross-sectional study compared the BMAT and BMD relationship between a younger adult group at or approaching peak bone mass (PBM; age 18.0-39.9 years) and an older group with potential bone loss (PoBL; age 40.0-88.0 years).
Pelvic BMAT was evaluated in 560 healthy men and women with T1-weighted whole-body magnetic resonance imaging. BMD was measured using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.
An inverse correlation was observed between pelvic BMAT and pelvic, total and spine BMD in the younger PBM group (r=-0.419 to -0.461, P<0.001) and in the older PoBL group (r=-0.405 to -0.500, P<0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, menopausal status, total body fat, skeletal muscle, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, neither subject group (younger PBM vs older PoBL) nor its interaction with pelvic BMAT significantly contributed to the regression models with BMD as dependent variable and pelvic BMAT as independent variable (P=0.434-0.928).
Our findings indicate that an inverse relationship between pelvic BMAT and BMD is present both in younger subjects who have not yet experienced bone loss and also in older subjects. These results provide support at the macro-imaging level for the hypothesis that low BMD may be a result of preferential differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from osteoblasts to adipocytes.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · European journal of clinical nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue and bone mineral density is different between African Americans and Caucasians as well as between men and women. This suggests that the mechanisms that regulate the differentiation and proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells may differ in these populations.
It has long been established that there are ethnic and sex differences in bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk. Recent studies suggest that bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) may play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. It is unknown whether ethnic and sex differences exist in the relationship between BMAT and BMD.
Pelvic BMAT was evaluated in 455 healthy African American and Caucasian men and women (age 18-88 years) using whole-body T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. BMD was measured using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.
A negative correlation was observed between pelvic BMAT and total body BMD or pelvic BMD (r = -0.533, -0.576, respectively; P < 0.001). In multiple regression analyses with BMD as the dependent variable, ethnicity significantly entered the regression models as either an individual term or an interaction with BMAT. Menopausal status significantly entered the regression model with total body BMD as the dependent variable. African Americans had higher total body BMD than Caucasians for the same amount of BMAT, and the ethnic difference for pelvic BMD was greater in those participants with a higher BMAT. Men and premenopausal women had higher total body BMD levels than postmenopausal women for the same amount of BMAT.
An inverse relationship exists between BMAT and BMD in African American and Caucasian men and women. The observed ethnic and sex differences between BMAT and BMD in the present study suggest the possibility that the mechanisms regulating the differentiation and proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells may differ in these populations.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Osteoporosis International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the potential long-term risk of malnutrition after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GBP) through an uncommon occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) postoperatively, which posed a serious threat to the nutritional status and the life of the patient.
We present a case report of a 44-year-old woman in whom Crohn disease developed 4 years after she had undergone GBP. The double insult of IBD and GBP resulted in severe malnutrition, with a serum albumin concentration of 0.9 g/dL (reference range, 3.5 to 5.0), weight loss, and watery diarrhea necessitating 6 hospital admissions during a period of 7 months.
Ultimately, the administration of total parenteral nutrition with aggressive macronutrient, vitamin, and mineral repletion resulted in substantial improvement in the patient's strength, function, and quality of life, in parallel with diminished symptoms of IBD.
Rarely, IBD develops after GBP, but the relationship between the 2 conditions remains unclear. Regardless, in addition to the altered anatomy after bariatric surgery, the further insult of IBD poses a severe threat to the nutritional status of affected patients. Malnutrition needs to be recognized and aggressively treated. Nutritional markers should be followed closely in this population of bariatric patients in an effort to avert the onset of severe malnutrition.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Endocrine Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AngII (angiotensin II) may contribute to cardiovascular risk in obesity via adverse effects on insulin sensitivity and endothelial function. In the present study, we examined the effects of ARB (angiotensin receptor blocker) therapy (losartan, 100 mg/day) on insulin sensitivity and endothelial function in 53 subjects with stage I hypertension, abdominal obesity and impaired fasting glucose. The study design was a randomized double-blinded parallel design placebo-controlled multi-centre trial of 8 weeks duration. We used the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp technique to measure insulin sensitivity (expressed as the 'M/I' value) and RH-PAT (reactive hyperaemia-peripheral arterial tonometry) to measure endothelial function. Additional measures included HOMA (homoeostasis model assessment)-B, an index of pancreatic β-cell function, and markers of inflammation [e.g. CRP (C-reactive protein)] and oxidative stress (e.g. F2-isoprostanes). ARB therapy did not alter insulin sensitivity [5.2 (2.7) pre-treatment and 4.6 (1.6) post-treatment] compared with placebo therapy [6.1 (2.9) pre-treatment and 5.3 (2.7) post-treatment; P value not significant], but did improve the HOMA-B compared with placebo therapy (P=0.05). ARB therapy also did not change endothelial function [RH-PAT, 2.15 (0.7) pre-treatment and 2.11 (0.7) post-treatment] compared with placebo therapy [RH-PAT, 1.81 (0.5) pre-treatment and 1.76 (0.7) post-treatment; P value not significant]. Markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were not significantly changed by ARB therapy. In conclusion, ARB therapy did not alter peripheral insulin sensitivity or endothelial function in this cohort of patients with essential hypertension, abdominal obesity and impaired fasting glucose, but did improve pancreatic β-cell function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Obesity is known to be associated with an increased risk of death, but current definitions of obesity are based on data from white populations. We examined the association between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of death in a large population of adult Chinese people.
We examined the association between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause mortality prospectively among 58,738 men and 65,718 women aged 20 years and older enrolled in 1998-1999 from four national health screening centres in Taiwan. We used Cox proportional hazards regression analyses to estimate the relative risks of all-cause mortality for different BMI categories during a maximum follow-up of 10 years.
A total of 3947 participants died during the follow-up period. The lowest risk of death was observed among men and women who had a BMI of 24.0-25.9 (mean 24.9). After adjustment for age, smoking status, alcohol intake, betel-nut chewing, level of physical activity, income level and education level, we observed a U-shaped association between BMI and all-cause mortality. Similar U-shaped associations were observed when we analyzed data by age (20-64 or ≥ 65 years), smoking (never, < 10 pack-years or ≥ 10 pack-years) and presence of a pre-existing chronic disease, and after we excluded deaths that occurred in the first three years of follow-up.
BMI and all-cause mortality had a U-shaped association among adult Chinese people in our study. The lowest risk of death was among adults who had a BMI of 24.0-25.9 (mean 24.9). Our findings do not support the use of a lower cutoff value for overweight and obesity in the adult Chinese population.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Canadian Medical Association Journal