[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complement system plays crucial roles in the immune system, but incorrect regulation causes inflammation and targeting of self-tissue, leading to diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and age-related macular degeneration. In vivo, the initiating complexes of the classical complement and lectin pathways are controlled by SERPING1 [(C1 inhibitor) serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade G, member 1], which inactivates the components C1s and MASP-2 (mannan-binding lectin serine peptidase 2). GAGs (glycosaminoglycan) and DXS (dextran sulfate) are able to significantly accelerate SERPING1-mediated inactivation of C1s, the key effector enzyme of the classical C1 complex, although the mechanism is poorly understood. In the present study we have shown that C1s can bind to DXS and heparin and that these polyanions enhanced C1s proteolytic activity at low concentrations and inhibited it at higher concentrations. The recent determination of the crystal structure of SERPING1 has given rise to the hypothesis that both the serpin (serine protease inhibitor)-polyanion and protease-polyanion interactions might be required to accelerate the association rate of SERPING1 and C1s. To determine what proportion of the acceleration was due to protease-polyanion interactions, a chimaeric mutant of alpha1-antitrypsin containing the P4-P1 residues from the SERPING1 RCL (reactive-centre loop) was produced. Like SERPING1, this molecule is able to effectively inhibit C1s, but is unable to bind polyanions. DXS exerted a biphasic effect on the association rate of C1s which correlated strongly with the effect of DXS on C1s proteolytic activity. Thus, whereas polyanions are able to bind C1s and modulate its activity, polyanion interactions with SERPING1 must also play a vital role in the mechanism by which these cofactors accelerate the C1s-SERPING1 reaction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: C1 inhibitor is a potent anti-inflammatory protein as it is the major inhibitor of proteases of the contact and the complement systems. C1-inhibitor administration is an effective therapy in the treatment of patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE) who are genetically deficient in C1 inhibitor. Owing to its ability to modulate the contact and complement systems and the convincing safety profile, plasma-derived C1 inhibitor is an attractive therapeutic protein to treat inflammatory diseases other than HAE. In the present review we give an overview of the biology of C1 inhibitor and its use in HAE. Furthermore, we discuss C1 inhibitor as an experimental therapy in diseases such as sepsis and myocardial infarction.
No preview · Article · Sep 2008 · Expert opinion on biological therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complement activation is a crucial early event in Wallerian degeneration. In this study we show that treatment of rats with soluble complement receptor 1 (sCR1), an inhibitor of all complement pathways, blocked both systemic and local complement activation after crush injury of the sciatic nerve. Deposition of membrane attack complex (MAC) in the nerve was inhibited, the nerve was protected from axonal and myelin breakdown at 3 days after injury, and macrophage infiltration and activation was strongly reduced. We show that both classical and alternative complement pathways are activated after acute nerve trauma. Inhibition of the classical pathway by C1 inhibitor (Cetor) diminished, but did not completely block, MAC deposition in the injured nerve, blocked myelin breakdown, inhibited macrophage infiltration, and prevented macrophage activation at 3 days after injury. However, in contrast to sCR1 treatment, early signs of axonal degradation were visible in the nerve, linking MAC deposition to axonal damage. We conclude that sCR1 protects the nerve from early axon loss after injury and propose complement inhibition as a potential therapy for the treatment of diseases in which axon loss is the main cause of disabilities.
Full-text · Article · May 2008 · American Journal Of Pathology