[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute pancreatitis is a significant potential complication with double-balloon enteroscopy. Hyperamylasemia is frequently observed after both double-balloon enteroscopy and single-balloon enteroscopy but often without associated pancreatitis. Whether the same phenomenon occurs with spiral enteroscopy is currently unknown.
To determine the incidence of pancreatitis and hyperamylasemia following spiral enteroscopy.
A prospective cohort study of consecutive patients undergoing proximal spiral enteroscopy was conducted. Serum amylase levels were measured immediately before and following the procedure, combined with observation for clinical signs of pancreatitis.
A total of 32 patients underwent proximal spiral enteroscopy, with a mean total procedure time of 51 min (range 30 min to 100 min) and mean depth of insertion of 240 cm (range 50 cm to 350 cm). The diagnostic yield was 50%, with 31% of all procedures being therapeutic. While no patients exhibited signs that raised suspicion of pancreatitis, hyperamylasemia was common (20%). Hyperamylasemia was not significantly associated with procedure duration or depth of insertion but was linked to patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and with the use of propofol sedation, suggesting that it may be more common in difficult cases.
Postprocedural hyperamylasemia occurred frequently with proximal spiral enteroscopy, while no associated pancreatitis was observed. This finding suggests that hyperamylasemia may not necessarily reflect pancreatic injury nor portend a risk for pancreatitis.
No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Canadian journal of gastroenterology = Journal canadien de gastroenterologie
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The small intestine has been difficult to examine by traditional endoscopic and radiologic techniques. Until the end of the last century, the small bowel follow through was the primary diagnostic tool for suspected small bowel disease. In recent years capsule endoscopy, deep enteroscopy using balloon-assisted or spiral techniques, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance enteroclysis or enterography have facilitated the diagnosis, monitoring, and management of patients with small bowel diseases. These technologies are complementary, each with its advantages and limitations. In the present article, we will discuss the different options and indications for modern diagnostic methods for visualization of the small bowel. We also try to provide a clinical rationale for the use of these different diagnostic options in less established, newly emerging, indications for small bowel evaluation.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Direct percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (DPEJ) has emerged as a viable alternative for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy with jejunal extension (PEG-J) in patients who cannot tolerate gastric feeding. Reportedly, DPEJ placement with regular endoscopes fails in up to one-third of cases. The aim of the current study was to assess the efficacy and safety of single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE)-assisted DPEJ. The DPEJ placement technique was comparable to conventional PEG placement. A total of 12 DPEJ procedures were performed in 11 patients (mean age 55 years [range 24-83 years]; seven males). SBE-assisted DPEJ was successful in 11 of the 12 procedures (92%). Post-procedural complications included gastroparesis and aspiration pneumonia in one case each. We conclude that SBE-assisted DPEJ placement seems a safe and successful approach for patients requiring jejunal enteral feeding.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The usefulness of single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) has not been evaluated in children with known or suspected Crohn's disease (CD).
The objectives of this study are to evaluate the diagnostic yield of SBE for pediatric CD by comparing it with US and magnetic resonance enterography (MRE).
Single-center prospective study.
Tertiary-care referral hospital.
Between February 2009 and April 2010, 20 pediatric patients (ages 8-18 years) with suspected inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or with a previous diagnosis of CD with suspected persistent small-bowel disease were enrolled.
All patients underwent proximal and distal SBE, 17 patients also underwent US combined with Doppler flow measurements, and 18 underwent MRE.
The findings of US with Doppler flow measurements and MRE were compared with those with SBE.
The mean patient age was 15.0 years (range 11.3-18 years, 70% male). Of 14 patients with suspected IBD, 8 had a diagnosis of CD made after SBE. Activity in the small bowel was found in 14 patients (70%) with both suspected and previously diagnosed CD. Twelve patients (60%) had small-bowel disease that was out of reach of conventional endoscopy. Three patients (15%) had small-bowel activity solely in the jejunum, which was not detected by either MRE or US.
Single-center study with small sample size.
SBE can be used in children to accurately assess small-bowel disease and CD. Small-bowel activity may be identified by SBE in some patients in whom it may not be apparent despite use of conventional upper endoscopy, ileocolonoscopy, US with Doppler flow measurements, or MRE.
No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Gastrointestinal endoscopy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) is the first choice endoscopic technique for small-bowel visualization. However, preparation and handling of the double-balloon enteroscope is complex. Recently, a single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) system has been introduced as being a simplified, less-complex balloon-assisted enteroscopy system.
This study was a randomized international multicenter trial comparing two balloon-assisted enteroscopy systems: DBE vs. SBE. Consecutive patients referred for balloon-assisted enteroscopy were randomized to either DBE or SBE. Patients were blinded with regard to the type of instrument used. The primary study outcome was oral insertion depth. Secondary outcomes included complete small-bowel visualization, anal insertion depth, patient discomfort, and adverse events. Patient discomfort during and after the procedure was scored using a visual analog scale.
A total of 130 patients were included over 12 months: 65 with DBE and 65 with the SBE technique. Patient and procedure characteristics were comparable between the two groups. Mean oral intubation depth was 253 cm with DBE and 258 cm with SBE, showing noninferiority of SBE vs. DBE. Complete visualization of the small bowel was achieved in 18 % and 11 % of procedures in the DBE and SBE groups, respectively. Mean anal intubation depth was 107 cm in the DBE group and 118 cm in the SBE group. Diagnostic yield and mean pain scores during and after the procedures were similar in the two groups. No adverse events were observed during or after the examinations.
This head-to-head comparison study shows that DBE and SBE have a comparable performance and diagnostic yield for evaluation of the small bowel.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retrograde double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) is important for evaluating the distal small bowel, but it is more challenging compared to the oral route. Optimizing small bowel insertion may enhance the diagnostic utility of the examination. We sought to determine if insertion depths achieved with retrograde DBE when performed as an isolated procedure differed significantly from when performed immediately following anterograde DBE.
A retrospective analysis was conducted of all retrograde DBE procedures performed at our center with comparisons made between "distal-only" DBE without preceding anterograde DBE and "combined" DBE after a prior same-day anterograde DBE.
Two hundred ninety retrograde DBE procedures were performed in 264 patients over 5 years. Success of terminal ileal intubation exceeded 95%. The mean insertion depth into the distal small bowel differed significantly with 112 cm (95% CI 95-129) in the "distal-only" group and 92 cm (95% CI 85-98) in the "combined" group (p = 0.01), with a trend toward a corresponding increased diagnostic yield of 48% versus 37%, respectively (p = 0.15). Multivariate regression analysis identified both insertion route strategy (distal-only > combined; p = 0.01) and type of DBE endoscope (diagnostic > therapeutic; p = 0.02) as significant predictors of retrograde insertion depth.
The insertion depth of retrograde DBE is significantly greater when carried out as a separate distal procedure and not in combination with a preceding anterograde DBE, and when performed using a diagnostic as opposed to the therapeutic DBE endoscope. This increased retrograde depth of insertion may be associated with an increased diagnostic yield.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite advances in training and equipment, complete colonoscopy fails, even in experienced hands, in up to 10% of cases. Double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) has been successfully used to complete colonoscopy in these patients. Single-balloon endoscopy (SBE) has become established for small-bowel enteroscopy. However, it has yet to be studied for use in colonoscopy.
To assess the efficacy, performance, and safety of single-balloon colonoscopy.
Prospective cohort study.
Academic tertiary referral center.
Patients with previously failed conventional colonoscopy.
23 single-balloon colonoscopy procedures were performed in 22 patients: median age 53 (range 19-75) years; 14 females, 8 males. SBE colonoscopy succeeded in cecal intubation in 22 (96%) procedures, with a median total procedure time of 30 (range 20-60) minutes. SBE colonoscopy was normal in 9 cases but resulted in a positive diagnosis in 13 (57%) procedures, including polyps (n = 6), active Crohn's disease (n = 4), Crohn's-related stricture (n = 1), and diverticulosis (n = 2). Seven (30%) procedures were therapeutic including 1 case with balloon dilation and 6 cases with polypectomy. No complications were encountered.
Limited sample size, no direct comparison with double-balloon endoscopy.
Single-balloon-assisted colonoscopy seems a safe and effective method for completing colonoscopy in patients with previously failed or difficult colonoscopy. The outcomes are similar compared with previous studies with DBE colonoscopy in this patient group.
No preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Gastrointestinal endoscopy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is estimated that 10%-30% of Crohn's disease (CD) patients have small-bowel lesions, but the exact frequency and clinical relevance of these findings are unknown. Double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) enables endoscopic visualization of the small bowel. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of DBE for detecting small-bowel lesions in CD patients suspected of having small-bowel involvement. Furthermore, the clinical impact of adjusting treatment in these patients was assessed.
A prospective study was performed in a tertiary referral center. CD patients suspected of small-bowel involvement and in whom distal activity had previously been excluded were included. All patients underwent DBE, followed by step-up therapy in patients with small-bowel lesions. The presence of small-bowel lesions during DBE was noted and clinical outcome was assessed after adjusting therapy.
Thirty-five patients (70%) showed small-bowel lesions; these lesions could not be assessed by conventional endoscopy in 23 (46%). At 1-year follow-up, step-up therapy in 26 patients (74%) led to clinical remission in 23 (88%). This was confirmed by a significant decrease in Crohn's disease activity index and mucosal repair on second DBE.
DBE showed a high frequency of small-bowel lesions in known CD patients with clinically suspected small-bowel activity. Most of these lesions were not accessible for conventional endoscopy. Adjusting treatment in patients with small-bowel CD involvement led to clinical remission and mucosal repair in the majority of cases.
No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) has proven to be a relatively safe method for small-bowel evaluation, with a complication rate of 1 %. The main concern after diagnostic DBE is acute pancreatitis. Single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) has emerged as a viable alternative to DBE. Until now, no incidence of pancreatitis has been reported for SBE. The aims were to evaluate complication rate and occurrence of hyperamylasemia and to identify the risk factors for hyperamylasemia after SBE.
Prospectively, consecutive patients undergoing peroral ("proximal") or combined approach SBE were included. Complications were assessed at 1 and 30 days afterwards. Serum amylase and C-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed immediately before and 2 - 3 hours after SBE.
166 SBE procedures were performed in 105 patients (53-male; mean age 51 years, range 9 - 87). The indications for SBE were: anemia (n = 55), Crohn's disease (n = 31) and abdominal complaints suspicious for inflammatory bowel disease (n = 5), Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (n = 1) and other (n = 13). Therapeutic interventions were performed during 21 procedures (13 %). One perforation (1 / 21 therapeutic interventions, 4.8 %) occurred after dilation of a benign stricture. While 13 patients (16 %) had post-SBE hyperamylasemia, none had complaints suggesting acute pancreatitis. Factors such as sex, indication, procedure duration, number of passes, route of SBE, findings, and/or treatment showed no significant correlation with presence of hyperamylasemia.
SBE appears to be a safe diagnostic endoscopic procedure. The incidence of hyperamylasemia and pancreatitis after peroral SBE seems comparable to that after DBE.