[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) infection in low prevalence areas of the People's Republic of China is challenging due to the sensitivity of the detection methods, leading to an underestimation of the disease burden. We compared the sensitivities of the miracidium hatching test (MHT) with the modified Kato-Katz method (KK) and the combination of the two methods (KK-MHT) to detect Sj infection in low prevalence areas of China. The stool samples of 3,853 residents from 8 villages with a light to moderate prevalence (0-23%) of Sj infection were examined by KK, MHT and KK-MHT. The findings were inconsistent. The KK-MHT conbination gave more positives than either the KK or MHT alone. Using the KK-MHT, we determined the missed rates with the KK (mR(K)) and MHT (mR(H)) to be 30.1% and 10.2%, respectively. At light prevalence sites (infection rate < 10%) the mR(K) was 60.6%, significantly higher than the mR(K) of 22.3% found at moderate prevalence sites (10-23%). However, the mR(H) at the light and moderate prevalence sites were 11.54% and 9.90%, respectively (p > 0.05). The combination KK-MHT had the best sensitivity in low Sj prevalence areas in China and the KK method alone was the least sensitive. Using KK alone as a screening method will result in an underestimation of Sj infection disease burden.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To analyze the progress of implementation of integrated strategy with emphasis on the control of infectious sources and effectiveness for joint-project of schistosomiasis control in Hubei province.
Data on the endemic status and implementation of each integrated intervention in 6 collaborated counties including Gongan, Hanchuan, Honghu, Jiangling, Xiantao and Yangxin during 2009-2013 were collected and analyzed. 18 administrative villages with a history of endemic schistosomisis from 6 counties were selected for field survey. Individuals aged 6-65 years received screening test by IHA, and feces of antibody positive inhabitants were collected and tested by miracidia hatching technique. Hatching technique was conducted to determine the infection rate of schistosomiasis in cattle if there was any cattle existed.
Various interventions were conducted with adaption to the local situation by the Departments of Agriculture, Water Conservancy, Forestry, and Health. The total number of cattle decreased from 75 388 at the beginning of 2009 to 1 805 at the end of 2013 in 6 counties with a reduction rate of 97.5%, while the prevalence in cattle reduced to 0-0.3% in 2013. Snail-infested areas were stable but areas with infected snails decreased significantly, and no infected snails were found in 2012-2013. Meanwhile, the infection rate of human beings on county level were less than 1%. No infected snails and cattle were found in 18 selected villages and the prevalence in inhabitants was in the range of 0-0.8%.
Cooperation between provincial government and the Ministries of Health and Agruiculture accelerates the process to reach the criteria of transmission control of schistosomiasis in Hubei Province. However, sustainable effort in needed as the current endemic situation of schistosomiasis is stillunstable.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Zhongguo ji sheng chong xue yu ji sheng chong bing za zhi = Chinese journal of parasitology & parasitic diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To establish the measures of schistosomiasis field survey and evaluate the efficacy of their application according to the content of indexes of rapid assessment system to high transmission risks in schistosomiasis endemic areas of lake regions.
In 2012, based on the analysis of Oncomelania hupensis snail situation, and schistosomiasis epidemic data of human and cattle from 2008-2010, 60 villages from Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi and Anhui provinces were selected and investigated, and the content of the investigation included the field feces, snail status, and epidemic situation of human and cattle. The systemic sampling was applied for snail investigation; the feces collected from snail investigation field were examined by the hatching test (3 bottles for 1 sample). A cluster random sampling was carried out with more than 300 people in each village. By using the hatching test (3 bottles for 1 sample) , the human stool examination was carried out for the identification of the infected persons who were positive in the immunity test screening. The hatching test was applied for cattle of all the villages (3 bottles for 1 sample).
A total of 65 field feces spots were surveyed in 60 villages, field feces were found in 78.46% (51/65) of spots, and the positive rate of field feces was 1.07% (9/842). There were 73.33% (44,160)of villages with cattle, and the largest amount cattle with 329 was found in Wufeng Village, Jiangxi Province. The cattle infection rate was 1.5 1% (4,913,242) in 3242 investigated cattle. The highest cattle infection rate was 4% in Tongxin Village, Jiangxi Province. The population of 47 099 was surveyed, the infection rate was 0.77% (364/47 099), and the highest was 4.37% in Xumuchang Village, Hunan Province. The infection rate was 0 in 43.33% (26/60) of villages. No acute schistosomiasis cases were reported in all the villages in 2011 and 2012. Totally, 77 snail spots in 60 villages were investigated, and 51 spots were marshland and 26 spots were ditches. The schistosome-infected snails were detected in 5.88% (3/51 )of the marshland spots and the living snails were found in 80.39%(41/51) of the spots. The highest density of living snails was 3.20/0.1 m2 in Xumuchang Village, Hunan Province. The average density of infected snails was 0.00045/0.1 m2 (4/8942). The infected snail spots were distributed in Liujiadi Village and Liuhe Village of Hubei Province, and Jiangkou Village of Anhui Province. No infected snails were detected in 26 ditches spots. The living snails were detected in 53.85% (14/26) of the ditches spots. The highest average density of living snails was 3.76/0.1 m2 in Huakou Village, Hubei Province.
The measures of field survey for rapid assessment system of high transmission risks in schistosomiasis endemic areas of lake regions are established and applied with scientific, impersonal and rapid characteristics.
No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A schistosomiasis laboratory network and its quality assurance system have been built and will be more and more perfect in China. This paper introduces the present situation of schistosomiasis diagnosis in China and expounds the basic ideas and the progress in the construction of schistosomiasis network platform. Furthermore, the face of schistosomiasis diagnosis network platform construction and operation of the challenge and the future work will be put forward in the latter part of this paper.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the impact of the "4 x 20" Lushan Earthquake on the risk of schistosomiasis transmission in Lushan and Tianquan counties, so as to provide the evidence for formulating appropriate measures for schistosomiasis prevention and control.
Based on a comprehensive literature review, an analysis of schistosomiasis monitoring data in the earthquake affected counties, and a field investigation, a rapid assessment on the impact of the earthquake on schistosomiasis was conducted.
Lushan and Tianquan counties were two endemic areas of schistosomiasis with high transmission level in history, especially Lushan County where Oncomelania snail distribution/density was the highest in Sichuan Province. After the earthquake, the streams and damaged ditches were blocked up, potentially leading to the spread of Oncomelania snails, and the damaged sanitary facilities may also lead to the release of excrement, contaminating the environment where snails resided. Meanwhile, the people who were relocated due to the earthquake may have higher exposures to contaminated environment. In addition, increasing population mobility (e.g. relief workers) also had the potential to bring infection sources in the earthquake affected areas. Further, animals, which may serve as reservoirs for the parasite such as homeless dogs, may also add the complexity of local schistosomiasis transmission.
The epidemic risk of schistosomiasis in Lushan and Tianquan counties is high. To prevent the outbreak and epidemic of schistosomiasis, the victim settlements should be established appropriately and the excrement should be managed carefully. Meanwhile, the snail control should be carried out in the high-risk environments. The health education, monitoring, patient treatments and expanded chemotherapy should be carried out and strengthened.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To establish an index system for rapid assessment of environment with high transmission risk of schistosomiasis in marshland and lake regions.
The alternative indices were established preliminarily by the documentary method, and then the Delphi method was used two rounds to select the indices and establish the index system. The degree of familiar and authority of the experts as well as the weights of all indices were assessed.
A total of 3 primary indices namely morbidity in domestic animals, morbidity in humans and Oncomelania snail status were established, among which the weight of morbidity in domestic animals (0.68) was the highest. Totally 16 secondary indices were established, among which the combinative weights of the positive rate of wild feces (0.09), the infection rate of livestock (0.09), the infection rate of humans (0.07), the number of cases with acute schistosomiasis (0.07), the area with infected snails (0.07), and the density of infected snails (0.07) were the highest. The coefficients of familiar degree and authority degree of the experts of the primary indices were 0.79-0.85 and 0.88-0.91, and those of the secondary indices were 0.68-0.86 and 0.77-0.91, respectively.
The index system for rapid assessment of environment with high transmission risk of schistosomiasis in marshland and lake regions is established preliminarily. Using this system, we can assess the key endemic indices of humans, domestic animals and snails to understand the endemic situation in the investigated sites.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To understand the indirect hemagglutination test capabilities of personnel from the institutes of schistosomiasis control at the basic levels in lake areas.
All the contestants were grouped by the operation standard, qualitative judgment, quantitative determination, and geographical location of Hunan and Hubei provinces, and their scores were statistically analyzed by SPSS 16.0 software.
The total scores of the contestants of the two provinces were high and there was no significant difference between them. Among the professional persons, the scores of operation standard and qualitative judgment were significantly higher than those of quantitative determination. There were no significant differences among the scores grouped by the different genders, ages, professional titles and areas (all P > 0.05).
The quantitative determination of indirect hemagglutination test of personnel from the institutes of schistosomiasis control at the basic levels is not very good. Therefore, the training of test capacity still should be strengthened.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To understand the comprehensive capability of helminth detection among professionals at different level of parasitic disease control institutions and promote the overall strength of diagnosis.
Four professionals from each parasitic diseases control institutions were selected as contestant (age < 45 and at least two contestant from county-level institution). The content of contest included making stool slides with Kato-Katz method (five slides in thirty minutes, a total score of 15 and 9 as passing score) and identification of eleven common helminth eggs with microscopy (ten slides, five minutes per slide, a total score of 60, 36 as passing score).
The average score of making slides in 119 contestants from 30 provinces was 11.4, and 119 contestants passed accouted for 93.3%. The average score of film-reading was 22.0, and 20 contestants passed accouted for 16.8%. There were no statistically significant differences between the results in different gender, age (< or = 30, 31-40, > 40), job title (the junior, intermediate, and senior), institution level (provincial, municipal, and county level) (P > 0.05). By Kato-Katz slide-making and film-reading, the scores in contestants from provinces with schistosomiasis control task (12.1 +/- 1.7, 32.1 +/- 11.5, respectively) were better than contestants from other provinces (11.1 +/- 1.8, 18.1 +/- 10.5, respectively). The scores in contestants from western (18.4 +/- 11.4) were lower than those from eastern (25.2 +/- 12.4) and central (24.1 +/- 13.1) for film-reading.
The overall capability of parasitic disease examination is unbalanced among regions, and evidently there is a need to strengthen the capacity of pathogen detection in the disease control programs.
No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Zhongguo ji sheng chong xue yu ji sheng chong bing za zhi = Chinese journal of parasitology & parasitic diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate and analyze the schistosomiasis endemic status and influencing factors in areas of schistosomiasis transmission control in hilly regions of mountain areas, so as to provide the reference for establishing the strategy and measures to achieve the target of schistosomiasis transmission-interrupted in the similar areas.
Dongpo District of Meishan City, Sichuan Province, which was appropriate to the standards of schistosomiasis transmission controlled by national evaluation in 2008, was selected as a study area. The data of schistosomiasis control from 2008 to 2010 were collected. A survey for epidemiological factors was carried out from April to November in 2011. The survey of Oncomelania snails was performed with the systematic sampling combined with environmental method. The schistosome infection status of residents was investigated by the seroimmunological test and fecal hatching examination. The schistosome infection status of cattle was investigated by the plastic cup with top tube hatching method. The infested water contact of residents was investigated with questionnaire. At the same time, in 2011, a simple random sampling combined with rapid field assessment method was used to investigate the distribution of outdoor feces, outdoor feces containing schistosome eggs, snails and infected snails in two spots of Jingyang District, Deyang City and Renshou County, Meishan City which had been appropriate to the standards of schistosomiasis transmission controlled in 2006 and 2007 respectively.
From 2008 to 2010, 182.6 thousand-213.3 thousand local residents were examined in Dongpo District, the positive rate of sero-immunological tests of population was 6.30% - 6.81%, and the infection rate of population was 0.02% -0.07% by estimated calculation. Totally 2 835-7 260 heads of cattle were examined and no positive cases were found. The areas of snail habits were 190.00-232.00 hm2, the intensities of living snails were 0.02-0.19 snails/0.1 m2, and no infected snails were found. In 2011, totally 204.4 thousand residents were examined and the positive rate of sero-immunological tests of population was 4.98% but no positive cases were founded through the parasitological tests. A total of 1 735 heads of cattle were examined and no positive cases were found. The areas of snail habits were 99.00 hm2, the intensity of living snails was 0.18 snails/ 0.1 m2, and no infected snails were found. Questionnaire analyses of a total of 537 residents in 4 villages showed that ditch, channel, pond, and paddy field were the major environments of the infested water contact of the residents. In the ditches and paddy fields, the average annual median values of water contact of residents were 15 and 20 person-times respectively before the area was appropriate to the standards of schistosomiasis transmission controlled, and 20 and 30 person-times respectively after the area was appropriate to the standards of schistosomiasis transmission controlled, and there were no significant differences (chi(ditch2) = 1.61, chi(padd field2) = 0.03, both P > 0.05). Whereas, in the channels and ponds, the average annual median values of water contact were 15 and 30 person-times respectively before the area was appropriate to the standards of schistosomiasis transmission controlled, but they were significantly reduced after the area was appropriate to the standards of schistosomiasis transmission controlled (chi(channel2) =10.35, chi(pond2) =18.69, both P < 0.01). In 2011, the rapid field investigation and assessment showed that the average appearance rates of snails through screening were 60.15% and 12.12% respectively in the 2 villages. The average densities of living snails were 1.19 snails/0.1m2 and 0.20 snails/0.1m2 respectively in the 2 villages, and there were no infected snails. A total of 78 outdoor feces of cattle and sheep were collected and the fecal hatching examinations showed that there were no positives.
After the schistosomiasis endemic areas in hilly regions of mountain areas are appropriate to the standards of schistosomiasis transmission controll, the achievements have been consolidated. However, the potential schistosomiasis endemic factors still exist, such as the high positive rate of schistosome sero-immunological tests in population, frequently bovine flowing, and no obviously decrease of the snail area and density of living snails. Therefore, it is an urgent need to develop more suitable new technologies and measures to accelerate the process of schistosomiasis prevention and control.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the molluscicidal effect of film on ditches in mountainous schistosomiasis endemic regions.
A ditch with Oncomelania hupensis snails was selected as experimental field. The ditch was divided into 3 parts (groups): a niclosamide plus film covering group (film covering after spraying by wettable powder of 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt upon 2 g/m2), a film covering group (film covering directly without niclosamide spraying), and a control group (no molluscicidal measures). The snail investigation was performed 7, 10, 40, 60 d and 90 d after film covering. The temperatures outside and inside film were determined twice a day during the experiment.
The temperature inside the film was significantly higher than that outside the film (t = 4.12, P < 0.01). Compared with the densities of living snails before the experiment, the densities of living snails decreased by 99. 01% and 67.71% seven days post-film in the niclosamide plus film covering group and film covering group respectively; 96.58% and 93.06% ten days post-film respectively; both 100% forty days post-film. The multi-factor regression model indicated that covering film with niclosamide applying, extending film covering time, and increasing cumulate temperature inside film could enhance the molluscicidal effect.
The film covering has well molluscicidal effect. The molluscicidal effect of covering film with niclosamide is better than that of covering film alone in short time. However, the covering film alone also has good molluscicidal effect when increasing covering time.
No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schistosoma japonicum is a major public health concern in the Peoples' Republic of China (PRC), with over one million people infected and another 50 million living in areas at risk of infection. Based on ecological, environmental, population genetic and molecular factors, schistosomiasis transmission in PRC can be categorised into four discrete ecosystems or transmission modes. It is predicted that the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) will impact upon the transmission of schistosomiasis in the PRC, with varying degree across the four transmission modes. We undertook longitudinal surveillance from 2002 to 2006 in sentinel villages both above and below the TGD across five provinces (Hunan, Jiangxi, Hubei, Anhui and Sichuan) to determine whether there was any impact of the TGD on schistosomiasis transmission during its construction. Here we present the results from a schistosomiasis-endemic village located above the dam in Sichuan Province.
Baseline results showed a human S. japonicum prevalence of 42.0% (95% CI: 36.6-47.5). At follow-up, results showed that the incidence of S. japonicum infection in the selected human cohort in Shian decreased by three quarters from 46% in 2003 to 11.3% in 2006. A significant (P < 0.01) downward trend was also evident in the yearly adjusted (for water contact) odds ratios. Over the four years of follow-up, the incidence of S. japonicum infection in bovines declined from 11.8% in the first year to zero in the final year of follow-up.
The substantial decrease in human (75%) and bovine (100%) incidence observed in Shian village can probably be attributed to the annual human and bovine PZQ treatment of positives; as seen in drug (PZQ) intervention studies in other parts of PRC. If an increase in schistosome transmission had occurred as a result of the TGD, it would be of negligible size compared to the treatment induced decline seen here. It appears therefore that the construction of the TGD had virtually no impact on schistosomiasis transmission in Shian village over the period of study. Furthermore, contrary to previous reports from Sichuan downplaying the role of animals in human schistosome transmission, bovines may indeed play a role.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Parasites & Vectors
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To observe the toxicity of niclosamide with plastic film mulching to fish.
A ditch with Oncomelania snails was selected as the study site, and it was divided into a control group and a molluscicide group. After the river closure, the molluscicidal group was sprayed with niclosamide with a dosage of 2 g/m2, and then covered with plastic film; no molluscicide measure was implemented in the control group. The toxicity of the molluscicide to carp fish in resting and flowing water environment was observed.
In flowing water, the death rates of carp fry of the molluscicidal and control groups showed no statistical difference 7 d after the film mulching (P = 0. 680), and no carp fry died in the 2 groups after plastic film taking off for 4 d. The death rates of carp fry between the 3 sites (with a distance of 50, 100 and 150 m from the molluscicidal group, respectively) and the control group had no statistical difference 7 d after film mulching (P = 0.955), and no dead fry was discovered 4 d after taking off the film. In downstream, for the death rates of carp fry, there was no difference between the molluscicidal group and the control group (P = 0.376). The death rates of snails before and after the molluscicidal experiment showed a significant difference (P < 0.01).
The technology of niclosamide molluscicide with plastic film mulching can not only improve the molluscicidal effect, but also avoid the toxicity to fish, which is suitable for special environment such as a fish pond.
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of schistosomiasis control by forbidding livestock denaturing on marshland with Oncomelania snails and to analyse its influencing factors.
The village of Aiguo, Xinhe, Huangjia, Fanrong, Fengfu and Caomen and its respective nearby marshland, i.e., Aiguoniu, Liulingwei, Huangjianiu, Da, Goulian, and Litouzui, in Jinxian county, Jiangxi province were selected as the pilot areas for implementing the measures of forbidding livestock denaturing on the marshlands with Oncomelania snails during the period of the year 2005 to 2007. A total of 300 residents in each village were randomly chosen for stool examination with the Kato-Katz technique every year. The snail survey was carried out in spring and autumn every year on the marshlands close to the villages with systemic sampling method. The marshlands with a height 16.5 m above the sea level in Futian was selected for snail survey and planting with sesame. The residents aged 20 - 50 years old in Fengfu and Aiguo villages were studied by using questionnaire on the compliance of forbidding livestock pasturing on marshlands with Oncomelania snails.
Before implementation of the measures, human infection rate with Schistosoma japonicum was 11.35% (90/793) in Aiguo, 4.00% (12/300) in Xinhe, 4.00% (6/150) in Huangjia, 8.00% (12/150) in Fanrong, 3.17% (4/126) in Fengfu and 6.64% (14/211) in Caomen. After implementation in 2008, human schistsome infection rate in the aforementioned 6 villages was declined to 0.18% (1/551), 0.00% (0/348), 0.00% (0/316), 2.27% (7/308), 1.17% (5/428) and 1.16% (5/430), respectively. Only in Fengfu village the decline of the human prevalence was not significant (χ(2) = 2.4, P = 0.12), while in the other 5 villages, human prevalence rate had been declined significantly (χ(2) = 126.77, P < 0.01; χ(2) = 16.31, P < 0.01; χ(2) = 18.79, P < 0.01; χ(2) = 10.39, P < 0.01; χ(2) = 14.17, P < 0.01, respectively). Infected snails were not found in 5 out of the 6 marshlands close to the villages. Three infected snails were founded in Da marshland because of poor environmental isolation. Before planting, the living snail density was 0.063/0.11 m(2) (34/540), and after planting, the living snail density was 0.0074/0.11 m(2) (4/538), a 88.25% reduction (Z = 12.47, P < 0.01) was recorded through economy crop planting at Futiandaan marshland in 2008. A total of 986 pieces of questionnaire were provided, and 968 valid ones were collected. The results of questionnaire indicate that compliance of forbidding livestock denaturing on marshland with Oncomelania snails in Aiguo and Fengfu villages was 84.38% (216/256) and 75.42% (537/712), respectively. Using logistic regression model, knowledge level on harmfulness of livestock denaturing on marshland with Oncomelania snails, willingness of culture with machine to substitute traditional cattle culture, and willingness of investment to marshland culture development are 3 varieties that affect residents' implementation of forbidding livestock denaturing on marshland with Oncomelania snails.
The infected snail density and human schistosome infection rate were reduced on the marshlands of well environmental isolation after 2 - 3 years implementation of forbidding livestock denaturing on marshlands with Oncomelania snails. The key influencing factors of forbidding livestock denaturing on marshland with Oncomelania snails are knowledge level on harmfulness of livestock denaturing on the snail infested marshlands, the willingness of machine culture to substitute cattle culture, and the willingness of investment to marshland culture development.
No preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Results from the third nationwide cluster sampling survey on the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China, conducted by the Ministry of Health in 2004, are presented. A stratified cluster random sampling technique was used, and 239 villages were selected in 7 provinces where Schistosoma japonicum remains endemic. A total of 250,987 residents 6-65 years of age were included in the survey. Estimated prevalence rates in the provinces of Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Anhui, Yunnan, Sichuan, and Jiangsu were 4.2%, 3.8%, 3.1%, 2.2%, 1.7%, 0.9%, and 0.3%, respectively. The highest prevalence rates were in the lake and marshland region (3.8%) and the lowest rates were in the plain region with waterway networks (0.06%). Extrapolation to all residents in schistosome-endemic areas indicated 726,112 infections. This indicates a reduction of 16.1% compared with a nationwide survey conducted in 1995. However, human infection rates increased by 3.9% in settings where transmission is ongoing.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2007 · Emerging Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schistosomiasis-related signs and symptoms and ultrasonographic results for residents of a randomly selected village per prevalence class and endemic area, stratified by ecosystem and serologic test result, People's Republic of China*
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the practical value and the advantages of globe geographical positioning with wireless communication monitoring and supervision system in the field survey.
Spots which were randomly sampled by the National Ministry of Health for the investigation were chosen in the endemic areas for schistosomiasis in Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Anhui, Hunan, Hubei, Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. Portable GPS CEC9680 was used for collecting relevant waypoints and track, recording on-the-spot geographical positions. The positioning data package was sent back synchronously in the form of short message of SMS to the monitoring service center, and the moving routes of the terminal receiver monitored were displayed on the GIS map to achieve real-time supervision and staff scheduling.
With globe geographical positioning with wireless communication monitoring and supervision system, accurate positioning of 12 spots in the provinces of Jiangsu and 3 trial spots for schistosomiasis control with comprehensive treatment designated by the State Council has been established with real-time communicating recording, and monitoring systems.
The globe geographical positioning with wireless communication monitoring and supervision system has provided a technical platform for the survey of schistosomiasis and other infectious diseases.
No preview · Article · Oct 2007 · Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine]