[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maggots of the blowfly Lucilia sericata are used for the treatment of chronic wounds. Previously we reported that maggot excretions/secretions (ES) break down Staphylococcus aureus biofilms but do not kill the bacteria. As many antibiotics are not effective against biofilms we assessed the effect of combinations of ES and antibiotics on S. aureus biofilms and on the survival of the bacteria released from the biofilms.
Effects of ES, antibiotics (vancomycin, daptomycin or clindamycin) and combinations thereof on S. aureus ATCC 29 213 biofilms and bacterial viability were determined using microtitre plates and in vitro killing assays.
Vancomycin and daptomycin dose-dependently enhanced biofilm formation, whereas clindamycin reduced S. aureus biofilm size. Adding ES to antibiotic incubations caused a complete biofilm breakdown. After a lag time the bacteria derived from biofilms became susceptible to vancomycin and clindamycin, provided that the medium was refreshed. Daptomycin dose-dependently eliminated the biofilm-derived bacteria immediately. Furthermore, it was significantly more effective against bacteria derived from ES-exposed biofilms than those from control biofilms. ES did not affect the activity of the antibiotics against log-phase S. aureus.
Combinations of maggot ES and antibiotics eliminate S. aureus biofilms and the bacteria derived therefrom.
Preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-10 plays an important role in modulating inflammation and antimicrobial defences. In animal models for bacterial corneal ulcers, high IL-10 levels were associated with a better clinical outcome. We investigated whether IL-10 promotor haplotypes, known to determine IL-10 expression in vitro, are associated with susceptibility to and/or clinical outcome of bacterial corneal ulcers in patients. IL-10 promotor polymorphisms C-819T, G-1082A, A-2763C, and A-2849G for 83 patients with bacterial corneal ulcers and 115 healthy controls were determined by restriction fragment length PCR analysis. For 63 patients and all healthy controls the most frequently occurring IL-10 promotor haplotypes were inferred from these data using the program SNPHAP. A significant underrepresentation of the A-2849A genotype was observed in patients as compared to healthy controls. Both the -2763A allele and the IL-10.1 promotor haplotype were associated with a poor clinical outcome, whereas a favourable clinical outcome was seen in patients carrying the IL-10.2 promotor haplotype. Together, IL-10 promotor haplotypes associated with low IL-10 levels seem to protect against the onset of bacterial corneal ulcers. Once a corneal ulcer has developed, patients carrying IL-10 haplotypes associated with a high IL-10 expression may have a favourable outcome.
No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Experimental Eye Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lactoferrin plays an important role in the defense against infections, including herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratitis. We studied the impact of three single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human lactoferrin gene on the susceptibility to HSV infections of the eye and the severity of such infections. Lactoferrin gene polymorphisms were determined by PCR combined with restriction fragment length analysis in 105 HSV keratitis patients and 145 control subjects. Bilateral tear samples were harvested from 50 patients and 40 healthy controls and tear lactoferrin concentrations were determined by ELISA. Patients' records were used to acquire information about the severity of the HSV keratitis. The frequencies of the Glu561Asp polymorphism, but not those of the Ala11Thr and Lys29Arg polymorphisms, differed significantly between patients and control subjects with an under-representation of the Asp561 allele in the patient group. Furthermore, the values for best corrected visual acuity, frequency of recurrences since onset, and average duration of clinical episodes did not differ among patients with various lactoferrin genotypes. In addition, tear lactoferrin concentrations were the same in patients with HSV keratitis and healthy controls and also did not differ among patients with various lactoferrin genotypes. Lactoferrin Glu561Asp polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility to HSV keratitis with a protective role for lactoferrin variants comprising Asp561. However, no beneficial effects of this lactoferrin variant on the clinical outcome of ocular HSV keratitis were noted.
No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Experimental Eye Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lucilia sericata maggots are successfully used for treating chronic wounds. As the healing process in these wounds is complicated by bacteria, particularly when residing in biofilms that protect them from antibiotics and the immune system, we assessed the effects of maggot excretions/secretions (ES) on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms, the clinically most relevant species.
We assessed the effects of ES on biofilms using microtitre plate assays, on bacterial viability using in vitro killing and radial diffusion assays, and on quorum sensing systems using specific reporter bacteria.
As little as 0.2 microg of ES prevented S. aureus biofilm formation and 2 microg of ES rapidly degraded biofilms. In contrast, ES initially promoted P. aeruginosa biofilm formation, but after 10 h the biofilms collapsed. Degradation of P. aeruginosa biofilms started after 10 h and required 10-fold more ES than S. aureus biofilms. Boiling of ES abrogated their effects on S. aureus, but not on P. aeruginosa, biofilms, indicating that different molecules within ES are responsible for the observed effects. Modulation of biofilms by ES did not involve bacterial killing or effects on quorum sensing systems.
Maggot ES are differentially effective against biofilms of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is renewed interest in the use of maggots (Lucilia sericata) to aid in healing of chronic wounds. In such wounds neutrophils precipitate tissue damage rather than contribute to healing. As the molecules responsible for the beneficial actions of maggots are contained in their excretions/secretions (ES), we assessed the effects of ES on functional activities of human neutrophils. ES dose-dependently inhibited elastase release and H(2)O(2) production by fMLP-activated neutrophils; maximal inhibition was seen with 5-50 microg of ES/ml. In contrast, ES did not affect phagocytosis and intracellular killing of Candida albicans by neutrophils. Furthermore, 0.5 microg of ES/ml already inhibited neutrophil migration towards fMLP. ES dose-dependently reduced the fMLP-stimulated expression of CD11b/CD18 by neutrophils, suggesting that ES modulate neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells. ES did not affect the fMLP-induced rise in [Ca(2+)](i) in neutrophils, indicating that ES act down-stream of phospholipase C-mediated activation of protein kinase C. In agreement, ES inhibited PMA-activated neutrophil functional activities. ES induced a rise in intracellular cAMP concentration in neutrophils and pharmacological activators of cAMP-dependent mechanisms mimicked their inhibitory effects on neutrophils. The beneficial effects of maggots on chronic wounds may be explained in part by inhibition of multiple pro-inflammatory responses of activated neutrophils by ES.
No preview · Article · May 2007 · Microbes and Infection
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In light of the need for new antifungal regimens, we report that at noncandidacidal concentrations, the lactoferrin-derived
peptide hLF(1-11), which is highly active against fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans, acts synergistically with fluconazole against this yeast and a fluconazole-sensitive C. albicans strain as well as C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis. When these yeasts were exposed to hLF(1-11) for 5 min and then incubated with fluconazole, they were killed effectively,
while no candidacidal activity was observed when they were incubated first with fluconazole and then exposed to the peptide,
indicating that the candidacidal activity is initiated by the peptide while fluconazole is only required during the effector
phase. Investigations of the effect of azide, which inhibits mitochondrial respiration, on the activity of combinations of
hLF(1-11) and fluconazole against fluconazole-resistant C. albicans revealed that it inhibits this activity, even when added during the effector phase only. As expected, azide inhibited the
accumulation of rhodamine 123 in mitochondria and the production and release of ATP by C. albicans that occurred upon exposure to the combination of hLF(1-11) and fluconazole. Accordingly, oxidized ATP (oATP), an antagonist
of ATP receptors, completely blocked the candidacidal activity of the hLF(1-11)-fluconazole combination, whereas oATP did
not block the activity when its presence was restricted to the effector phase. The candidacidal activity of combinations of
hLF(1-11) and fluconazole, which is initiated by the peptide through the involvement of energized mitochondria, renders fluconazole-resistant
C. albicans sensitive to this azole.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2003 · Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy