- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: Utilization of anemia tolerance reduces the need for and risks of perioperative transfusion. Recent publications indicate that the critical limit for oxygen supply might not be the same for each organ system. Therefore, we investigated the effects of acute dilutional anemia on heart, brain, kidneys, liver, small intestine, and skeletal muscle to quantify organ-specific tolerance of different levels of acute anemic hypoxia. We hypothesized that, in some organs, tissue hypoxia occurs before the critical limits of systemic oxygen supply are reached. DESIGN:: Laboratory animal experiments. SETTING:: Animal research laboratory at university medical school. SUBJECTS:: A total of 18 domestic pigs of either sex (average weight: 19.6 kg). INTERVENTIONS:: Animals were anesthetized, ventilated, and randomized into three groups and then hemodiluted by exchange of 6% hydroxyethyl starch (130,000:0.4) for whole blood to the group-specific endpoint: Sham (no hemodilution), Hb4 (hemoglobin 4.3 g/dL), Hbcrit (2.7 g/dL). Subsequently, 10 mg/kg pimonidazole (which forms protein adducts in hypoxic cells) was injected. One hour after injection, tissue samples were collected and analyzed for pimonidazole-protein adduct quantification (dot blot) and as a surrogate for transcriptional activation during hypoxia the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor messenger RNA. Relevant hemodynamic and metabolic parameters were collected. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: Hemodynamics, metabolic parameters, or oxygen consumption did not indicate that tissue oxygenation was restricted before reaching Hbcrit. However, kidneys and skeletal muscle showed enhanced pimonidazole binding and vascular endothelial growth factor expression at Hb4. By contrast, liver oxygenation was actually improved at Hb4. Heart, brain, and liver showed no signs of tissue hypoxia at Hb4. CONCLUSIONS:: Heart, brain, kidneys, liver, small intestine, and skeletal muscle experience tissue hypoxia at different degrees of acute anemia, as assessed by the pimonidazole method and vascular endothelial growth factor expression. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms that determine organ-specific anemia tolerance.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ventilation with pure oxygen (hyperoxic ventilation: HV) is thought to decrease whole body oxygen consumption (VO(2)). However, the validity and impact of this phenomenon remain ambiguous; until now, under hyperoxic conditions, VO(2) has only been determined by the reverse Fick principle, a method with inherent methodological problems. The goal of this study was to determine changes of VO(2), carbon dioxide production (VCO(2)), and the respiratory quotient (RQ) during normoxic and hyperoxic ventilation, using a metabolic monitor. After providing signed informed consent and institutional acceptance, 14 healthy volunteers were asked to sequentially breathe room air, pure oxygen, and room air again. VO(2), VCO(2), RQ, and energy expenditure (EE) were determined by indirect calorimetry using a modified metabolic monitor during HV. HV reduced VO(2) from 3.4 (3.0/4.0) mL/kg/min to 2.8 (2.5/3.6) mL/kg/min (P < 0.05), whereas VCO(2) remained constant (3.0 [2.6/3.6] mL/kg/min versus 3.0 [2.6/3.5] mL/kg/min, n.s.). After onset of HV, RQ increased from 0.9 (0.8/0.9) to 1.1 (1.0/1.1). Most changes during HV were immediately reversed during subsequent normoxic ventilation. HV not only reduces VO(2), but also increases the respiratory quotient. This might be interpreted as an indicator of the substantial metabolic changes induced by HV. However, the impact of this phenomenon requires further study.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction The correction of hypovolemia with acellular fluids results in acute normovolemic anemia. Whether the choice of the infusion fluid has an impact on the maintenance of oxygen (O2) supply during acute normovolemic anemia has not been investigated so far. Methods Thirty-six anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs were hemodiluted to their physiological limit of anemia tolerance, reflected by the individual critical hemoglobin concentration (Hbcrit). Hbcrit was defined as the Hb-concentration corresponding with the onset of supply-dependency of total body O2-consumption (VO2). The hemodilution protocol was randomly performed with either tetrastarch (6% HES 130/0.4, TS-group, n = 9), gelatin (3.5% urea-crosslinked polygeline, GEL-group, n = 9), hetastarch (6% HES 450/0.7, HS-group, n = 9) or Ringer's solution (RS-group, n = 9). The primary endpoint was the dimension of Hbcrit, secondary endpoints were parameters of central hemodynamics, O2 transport and tissue oxygenation. Results In each animal, normovolemia was maintained throughout the protocol. Hbcrit was met at 3.7 ± 0.6 g/dl (RS), 3.0 ± 0.6 g/dl (HS P < 0.05 vs. RS), 2.7 ± 0.6 g/dl (GEL, P < 0.05 vs. RS) and 2.1 ± 0.4 g/dl (TS, P < 0.05 vs. GEL, HS and RS). Hemodilution with RS resulted in a significant increase of extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) and a decrease of arterial oxygen partial pressure (paO2), and O2 extraction ratio was increased, when animals of the TS-, GEL- and HS-groups met their individual Hbcrit. Conclusions The choice of the intravenous fluid has an impact on the tolerance of acute normovolemic anemia induced by acellular volume replacement. Third-generation tetrastarch preparations (e.g., HES 130/0.4) appear most advantageous regarding maintenance of tissue oxygenation during progressive anemia. The underlying mechanism includes a lower degree of extravasation and favourable effects on microcirculatory function.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The patient's individual anemia tolerance is pivotal when blood transfusions become necessary, but are not feasible for some reason. To date, the effects of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) on anemia tolerance have not been investigated. 14 anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs were randomly assigned to the Roc group (3.78 mg/kg rocuronium bromide followed by continuous infusion of 1 mg/kg/min, n = 7) or to the Sal group (administration of the corresponding volume of normal saline, n = 7). Subsequently, acute normovolemic anemia was induced by simultaneous exchange of whole blood for a 6% hydroxyethyl starch solution (130/0.4) until a sudden decrease of total body O(2) consumption (VO(2)) indicated a critical limitation of O(2) transport capacity. The Hb concentration quantified at this time point (Hb(crit)) was the primary endpoint of the protocol. Secondary endpoints were parameters of hemodynamics, O(2) transport and tissue oxygenation. Hb(crit) was significantly lower in the Roc group (2.4 ± 0.5 vs. 3.2 ± 0.7 g/dl) reflecting increased anemia tolerance. NMB with rocuronium bromide reduced skeletal muscular VO(2) and total body O(2) extraction rate. As the cardiac index increased simultaneously, total body VO(2) only decreased marginally in the Roc group (change of VO(2) relative to baseline -1.7 ± 0.8 vs. 3.2 ± 1.9% in the Sal group, p < 0.05). Deep NMB with rocuronium bromide increases the tolerance of acute normovolemic anemia. The underlying mechanism most likely involves a reduction of skeletal muscular VO(2). During acellular treatment of an acute blood loss, NMB might play an adjuvant role in situations where profound stages of normovolemic anemia have to be tolerated (e.g. bridging an unexpected blood loss until blood products become available for transfusion).
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Changes in heart rate variability (HRV) during anaesthesia depend on multiple influences such as hypnosis, analgesia, surgical stress, and interacting drugs. Several recent studies have aimed to establish HRV-based monitoring tools to measure perioperative stress or anaesthetic depth. Although hyperoxic ventilation (HV) is known to alter autonomic cardiovascular regulation, there have been no studies investigating its influence on time- and frequency-domain analysis during general anaesthesia. Therefore, we have examined the effects of HV on cardiovascular neuroregulation of anaesthetized patients and conscious volunteers by analysis of relevant HRV parameters. Fourteen healthy volunteers and 14 anaesthetized, ventilated ASA I patients sequentially breathed room air ( 0.21), pure oxygen ( 1.0), and then room air. During each episode, standardized HRV parameters were calculated from 5 min ECG recordings. HV significantly reduced HR and increased the standard deviation of RR interval values, the root mean square of successive RR interval differences, and the high-frequency (HF) power of the spectral components, whereas the low-frequency (LF) power and the LF/HF ratio of HRV were reduced in both groups. All changes were reversible after was reduced to normoxia. In both healthy volunteers and anaesthetized patients, HV resulted in comparable and reversible changes of established HRV parameters. These changes might be relevant enough to bias HRV-based analgesia and anaesthesia monitoring and could result in a clinically relevant misinterpretation of HRV parameters as indicators of anaesthetic depth during HV.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated changes in heart rate variability (HRV) across different degrees of acute dilutional anemia (hemoglobin [Hb]=9, 7, 5, 4, and 3 g/dL) in a pig model. Twelve anesthetized mechanically ventilated pigs of either gender (mean body weight 27.5±5.5 kg) were hemodiluted by exchange of blood for hydroxyethyl starch (6%; 200000/0.5) from baseline values to each animal's individual critical hemoglobin concentration (Hbcrit 3.3 [2.3/3.6] g/dL). Differences in time- and frequency-domain calculations of HRV were analyzed throughout the hemodilution procedure by using short-term electrocardiogram recordings (analysis of variance+Dunn's post-hoc test). During the hemodilution procedure, the standard deviation of normal R-R intervals and the coefficient of variation changed at Hb 5.3 (4.2/5.7) g/dL. Thereafter, the high-frequency power (HF), total power of the variance, and root mean square of successive N-N interval differences changed at Hb 3.9 (3.1/4.3) g/dL. The low-frequency power (LF) and the LF/HF ratio remained unaffected by hemodilution to Hbcrit. Acute dilutional anemia resulted in significant changes in different time- and frequency-domain variables in HRV analysis. These changes occurred considerably earlier than did commonly recognized transfusion triggers or signs of general tissue hypoxia. Further investigation is warranted to elucidate whether these changes can be considered as indicators of imminent tissue hypoxia.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Administration of 100% oxygen [hyperoxic ventilation (HV)] has been proven to ameliorate oxygen transport, tissue oxygenation and survival in different models of extreme normovolemic and hypovolemic anaemia. However, up to date, it is unknown whether HV is also able to improve outcome of extreme anaemia if myocardial oxygen consumption is contemporaneously increased by tachycardia. Therefore, we investigated the influence of HV on the 6-h survival rate during extreme anaemia and aggravated by experimentally induced tachycardia in a prospective, randomized study in a pig model of critical anaemia. After government approval, 14 anesthetized pigs mechanically ventilated on room air were haemodiluted by replacing a certain amount of whole blood with hydroxethyl starch 6% (200.000/0.5) until their individual critical haemoglobin concentration (Hb(crit)) was achieved. At Hb(crit), tachycardia (180 bpm) was induced in all animals by atrial pacing. Thereafter, animals were observed for the next 6 h either at room air (FiO(2) 0.21; group NOX) or during HV (FiO(2) 1.0; group HOX) without further intervention. As primary outcome parameter of this study, the 6-h survival rate was selected. Hyperoxic ventilation increased the 6-h survival rate from 14 to 100%. In contrast to the NOX group, macrohaemodynamics and oxygen transport improved in the HOX group during the observation period without apparent adverse effects of HV. Hyperoxic ventilation can be considered a safe and effective measure for the optimization of oxygen supply during extreme anaemia and despite concomitant tachycardia within 6 h. Whether HV can also be recommended beyond this period warrants further studies.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied whether low hemoglobin concentrations during normovolemia change the myocardial electrical current (electrocardiogram) in a pig model. Normovolemic anemia was achieved by stepwise replacing blood with colloids (hydroxyethyl starch 6%). We measured the length of the PQ-, QT-, QTc, and the ST interval as well as the amplitude of the Q wave and T wave at hemoglobin concentrations of 9.5, 8.0, 5.5, 3.8, and 3.3 g·dL. Normovolemic anemia is accompanied by a gradual prolongation of the QT and QTc interval and a reduction in the amplitude of the T wave. The QRS complex is partly diminished in amplitude. Results were verified performing a time-frequency analysis on single heartbeats. During severe anemia and normovolemia, electrocardiographic changes can be detected. Further investigations are warranted to elucidate whether these changes indicate myocardial hypoxia.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently it has been demonstrated that short term hyperoxic ventilation (HV) can improve glucose metabolism, reduce pulmonary and hepatic apoptosis, and improve gastrointestinal perfusion during acute sepsis. However, it is unknown whether additional O(2) improves survival. Therefore we investigated the effects of increased plasma O(2) on survival during extreme anaemia and concomitant endotoxaemia in order to quantify the efficacy of HV. Endotoxaemia (Salmonella abortus equi-LPS) was induced in 14 anesthetized pigs ventilated with room air (FiO(2)=0.21). Simultaneously, animals were haemodiluted by exchange of whole blood for 6% hydroxyethyl starch (200,000:0.5) until the individual critical hemoglobin concentration (Hb(crit)) was achieved (outermost limit of tissue oxygenation). Subsequently, animals were either ventilated with an FiO(2) of 0.21 (NOX, n=7) or an FiO(2) of 1.0 (HOX, n=7), and observed thereafter for 6 h without further intervention. HV significantly prolonged survival time at Hb(crit) (NOX, 30 [27/35] min; HOX, 172 [111/235] min, p<0.05). In contrast to the NOX group, HV maintained MAP, and improved DO(2) and tissue oxygenation in the HOX group. The improvement of survival, oxygen transport and tissue oxygenation seems to underline the efficacy of HV during endotoxaemia and concomitant acute anaemia. Further studies are needed to transfer these results into daily clinical practice.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Application of high inspiratory oxygen concentrations is an established method to improve arterial oxygen content, oxygen transport and tissue oxygenation. However, in the past years a considerable amount of data have emerged challenging this approach: hyperoxic ventilation (ventilation with pure oxygen, HV) and subsequent hyperoxemia have been accused of inducing unfavorable effects on microcirculation and tissue perfusion, resulting in regional tissue hypoxia. Interestingly, these disadvantegous properties of HV seem to occur predominantly in patients with physiological hemoglobin concentrations and probably play a minor role in anemic patients. In animal experiments the effect of HV on tissue oxygenation and on outcome of several severe pathologic conditions essentially depends on the hemoglobin concentration: HV failed to have a considerable impact on survival of severe hypovolemia or methemoglobinemia (physiological hemoglobin concentration), whereas it convincingly improves outcome of severe normovolemic anemia. The present review discusses a perspective on the effects of HV at different hemoglobin concentrations and its potential to improve oxygen transport and tissue oxygenation especially during moderate and severe anemia.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the efficacy of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified formulation of liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) as an oxygen-carrying blood substitute in the treatment of critical normovolemic anemia. Prospective, controlled, randomized experimental study in a university research facility. 14 anesthetized and mechanically ventilated beagle dogs. Animals were splenectomized and hemodiluted by exchange of whole blood for iso-oncotic hetastarch (HES). Target parameter of the hemodilution protocol was the individual critical hemoglobin concentration (Hb(crit)) corresponding with the onset of O(2) supply dependency of total body O(2) consumption. At Hb(crit) animals were randomized to receive a bolus infusion (20[Symbol: see text]ml/kg) of either LEH (n = 7) or normal saline (NS; n = 7). Subsequently animals were observed without further intervention. The primary endpoint was survival time after the completion of treatment; secondary endpoints were parameters of central hemodynamics, O(2) transport and tissue oxygenation. Animals in the LEH group survived significantly longer after completion of treatment (149 +/- 109 vs. 43+/- 56 min). Immediately after treatment LEH-treated animals presented with a more stable cardiovascular condition. After 30 min tissue O(2) tension on the surface of a skeletal muscle was significantly higher in the LEH group (23+/-8 vs. 9 +/- 2 mmHg). Nevertheless, treatment with LEH did not decrease mortality within the observation period. In this present experimental study the infusion of a PEG-modified LEH provided adequate tissue oxygenation, hemodynamic stability, and a prolongation of survival time after critical anemia. However, these effects were sustained for only a short period of time.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The expected cost explosion in transfusion medicine increases the socio-economic significance of specific institutional transfusion programs. In this context the estimated use of the patient's physiologic tolerance represents an integral part of any blood conservation concept. The present article summarizes the mechanisms, influencing factors and limits of this natural tolerance to anemia and deduces the indication for perioperative red blood cell transfusion. The current recommendations coincide to the effect that perioperative transfusion is unnecessary up to a Hb concentration of 10 g/dl (6.21 mmol/l) even in older patients with cardiopulmonary comorbidity and is only recommended in cases of Hb <6 g/dl (<3.72 mmol/l) in otherwise healthy subjects including pregnant women and children. Critically ill patients with multiple trauma and sepsis do not seem to benefit from transfusions up to Hb concentrations >9 g/dl (>5.59 mmol/l). In cases of massive hemorrhaging and diffuse bleeding disorders the maintenance of a Hb concentration of 10 g/dl (6.21 mmol/l) seems to contribute to stabilization of coagulation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extreme anemia threatens myocardial oxygen supply by 1) a decline of arterial oxygen content and 2) by a decline of mean aortic pressure (MAP) and thus coronary perfusion pressure. Standard treatment of low arterial oxygen content includes ventilation with pure oxygen and the transfusion of red blood cells. However, it is unknown whether the stabilization of MAP and coronary perfusion pressure with norepinephrine as the sole therapeutic modality may also increase tolerance to extreme anemia and thus improve outcome. Prospective, randomized, controlled study. Experimental animal laboratory of a university hospital. A total of 28 anesthetized, mechanically ventilated pigs. In the first protocol, 14 anesthetized pigs were hemodiluted by exchange of whole blood for 6% hydroxyethyl starch (200,000:0.5) until the individual critical hemoglobin concentration was reached. For the next 6 hrs, animals were either observed without any further intervention (control group) or their MAP was maintained by adapted infusion of norepinephrine (norepinephrine group). The main outcome variable of this protocol was the 6-hr mortality in both groups. In the second protocol, 14 anesthetized pigs received hemodilution until death. In seven animals, no intervention was performed during the hemodilution procedure, whereas in the other seven animals, MAP was maintained at >60 mm Hg by adapted infusion of norepinephrine. The main outcome variable of this protocol was the maximum exchangeable blood volume until death. MAP stabilization with norepinephrine reduced the 6-hr mortality at the critical hemoglobin concentration from 100% to 14%. Maintaining MAP by adapted norepinephrine infusion during the hemodilution procedure allowed for the exchange of 125 (110/126) (median [quartile 1/quartile 3]) mL/kg blood (163% of blood volume) in the norepinephrine group, whereas only 76 (73/91) mL/kg blood (104% of blood volume) could be exchanged in the control group. Application of norepinephrine can be judged a first-line intervention to bridge acute anemia via a stabilization of MAP and coronary perfusion pressure. However, due to the relevant side effects of norepinephrine, its sole long-term use during extreme anemia without concomitant transfusion of erythrocytes is not advised.
Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany
- Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive-Care Medicine and Pain Therapy