Publications (3)9.79 Total impact
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of gemcitabine-based chemoradiation (CT-RT) in treating patients (pts) affected by locally advanced pancreatic cancers (LAPC). Weekly gemcitabine (100 mg/m(2)) was given as a 24-hour infusion during the course of three-dimensional radiotherapy (50.4 Gy to the tumor, 39.6 Gy to the nodes). After CT-RT, pts received five cycles of sequential chemotherapy with gemcitabine (1000 mg/m(2); 1, 8, q21). Response rate was assessed according to World Health Organization criteria 6 weeks after the end of CT-RT. Local control (LC), time to progression (TTP), metastases-free survival (MFS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by the Kaplan Meier method. Forty pts (male/female 22/18; median age 62 years, range, 36-76) were treated from 2000 to 2005. The majority had T4 tumour (n = 34, 85%), six pts (15%) had T3 tumour. Sixteen pts (40%) were node positive at diagnosis. Grade 3-4 acute toxicity was observed in 21 pts (52.5%). Thirty pts (75%) completed the treatment schedule. A clinical response was achieved in 12 pts (30%). With a median follow-up of 76 months (range, 32-98), 2-year LC was 39.6% (median, 12 months), 2-year TTP was 18.4% (median, 10 months), and 2-year MFS was 29.7% (median, 10 months). Two-year OS (25%; median, 15.5 months) compared with our previous study on 5-fluorouracil-based CT-RT (2.8%) was significantly improved (p <0.001). Gemcitabine CT-RT seems correlated with improved outcomes. Healthier patients who are likely to complete the treatment schedule may benefit most from this therapy.
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ABSTRACT: In recent years, preoperative chemoradiation has received growing interest for the treatment of locally advanced pancreatic cancer. In an attempt to improve resectability and disease control, we used preoperative radiation therapy and concomitant 5-fluorouracil in a combined modality therapy protocol. The aim of the study was to evaluate definitive results in terms of toxicity, response and clinical outcome. Twenty-eight patients with unresectable (cT4, 19 patients) or resectable (cT3, 9 patients) nonmetastatic pancreatic tumors received radiotherapy (39.6 Gy) plus 5-fluorouracil (continuous infusion, days 1-4 at 1000 mg/m(2)/day). After 4 weeks, patients were evaluated for surgical resection. In 9 resected patients, electron-beam intra-operative radiotherapy (10 Gy) was given before reconstruction. Thereafter, in resected patients, adjuvant chemotherapy was prescribed. During chemoradiation, 1 patient (3.6%) developed grade 3 acute gastrointestinal toxicity and 2 patients (7.1%) developed grade 3 hematological toxicity. Three of 19 patients with unresectable tumors had tumor downstaging (15.8%). Two patients showed partial response (response rate, 7.1%; 95% CI, 0.2-25.3) and 4 patients (14.3%) had minimal tumor response. Four patients (14.3%) showed progressive disease after chemoradiation. One postoperative death was recorded. The median survival time was 11.3 months (20.5 and 9.0 months in resected and unresected patients, respectively). Only one local failure was recorded in 8 patients resected with negative margins. Although the response rate is still low, our preliminary results suggest that preoperative 5-fluorouracil chemoradiation is well tolerated and may result in tumor downstaging. Delivery of intra-operative radiotherapy seems to be associated with a low rate of local recurrences.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the impact of tumor response; tumor and nodal downstaging; and cTNM, yTNM (clinical stage after chemoradiation, based on preoperative imaging), and pTNM classifications on long-term outcome in patients with rectal cancer treated with preoperative 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based concurrent chemoradiation. Between January 1990 and March 1998, 165 consecutive patients with locally advanced extraperitoneal cancer of the rectum were treated with preoperative chemoradiation. Four patients had a cT2 lesion (2.5%), 120 had a cT3 lesion (74.5%), and 41 had a cT4 lesion (23%). The nodal involvement at combined imaging was cN0 in 21%, cN1 in 41%, cN2 in 34%, and cN3 in 4%. Preoperative chemoradiation was delivered according to 1 of 3 schedules: (1) FUMIR-T3 (from 1990 to 1995) for patients with cT3N0-2 or cT2N1-2 rectal carcinoma (82 patients): 37.8 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction) plus 5-FU, 1 g/m(2)/d on Days 1-4, continuous infusion, and mitomycin-C, 10 mg/m(2)/d on Day 1; (2) FUMIR-T4 (from 1990 to 1999) for patients with cT4N0-3 or cT3-4N3 rectal carcinoma (40 patients): 45 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction) plus 5-FU, 1 g/m(2)/d on Days 1-4 and 29-32, continuous infusion, and mitomycin-C, 10 mg/m(2)/d on Days 1 and 29; and (3) PLAFUR-4 (from 1995 to 1998) for patients with cT3N0-2 or cT2N1-2 rectal carcinoma (42 patients): 50.4 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction) plus 5-FU, 1 g/m(2)/d on Days 1-4 and 29-32, continuous infusion, and cisplatin, 60 mg/m(2)/d on Days 1 and 29. Four to five weeks after chemoradiation, patients were reevaluated for clinical response by imaging studies (CT scan, transrectal ultrasonography, barium enema, liver ultrasonography, chest X-rays) and restaged (yTNM). Surgery was performed 6-8 weeks after chemoradiation. Adjuvant chemotherapy (5-FU + l-folinic acid) was delivered to 26 patients in the FUMIR-T4 protocol group. Local control (LC), freedom from distant metastases (FDM), disease-free survival, and overall survival (OS) were evaluated according to the clinical response and cTNM, yTNM, and pTNM classification. The median follow-up was 67 months. The 5-year survival rate was 100% for cT2, 77% for cT3, and 62% for cT4 (p = 0.0497); after chemoradiation, it ranged between 81% and 91% for pT0-pT2 and dropped to 66% for pT3 and 47% for pT4 (p = 0.014). The 5-year local control rate was, at the first staging, 84% for cT3 and 72% for cT4; after chemoradiation, the pT stage correlated significantly with LC (p = 0.0012): 100% for pT0, 83% for pT1, 88% for pT2, 79% for pT3, and 46% for pT4. N stage was statistically significant in predicting FDM and OS at any staging step. A significant impact of tumor response, tumor downstaging, and nodal downstaging on LC, FDM, disease-free survival, and OS was also recorded. If the residual tumor, before surgery, had a tumor index <30 (i.e., width less than one-quarter of rectal circumference and length in its caudocranial axis < or =30 mm), the 5-year LC, FDM, disease-free survival, and OS rates were significantly higher at both the univariate and the multivariate analyses. The surgical procedure was tailored according to tumor downstaging, and thus the choice of sphincter-preserving surgery was based on the distance between the lower pole of the tumor and the anorectal ring "after" chemoradiation. In 36 patients with the lower pole of the lesion in the range of 0-30 mm from the anorectal ring, 16 patients (44%) underwent a sphincter-saving procedure. All clinical outcomes were similar compared with 20 patients with tumor located at the same rectum level who received an abdominoperineal resection. After preoperative chemoradiation, clinical response and tumor/nodal pathologic downstaging showed a close correlation with improved outcomes. The better 5-year survival and local control in pT0-2 patients regardless of their initial stage seems to confirm a heterogeneity in rectal cancer patients. The responder population showed a behavior similar to rectal cancer diagnosed at Stage cT1-2 and treated with conservative surgery alone. Additional studies aimed at improving local tumor response seem justified. Trials of sphincter-saving surgery after a major response are warranted.
Catholic University of the Sacred Heart
Milano, Lombardy, Italy
- Institute of Clinical and Surgical Therapy