[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The specificities of the proteases of 11 retroviruses were studied using a series of oligopeptides with amino acid substitutions in the P1, P3, and P4 positions of a naturally occurring type 1 cleavage site (Val-Ser-Gln-Asn-Tyr downward arrowPro-Ile-Val-Gln) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Previously, the substrate specificity of the P2 site was studied for the same representative set of retroviral proteases, which included at least one member from each of the seven genera of the family Retroviridae (P. Bagossi, T. Sperka, A. Fehér, J. Kádas, G. Zahuczky, G. Miklóssy, P. Boross, and J. Tözsér, J. Virol. 79:4213-4218, 2005). Our enzyme set comprised the proteases of HIV-1, HIV-2, equine infectious anemia virus, avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV), Mason-Pfizer monkey virus, mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV), Moloney murine leukemia virus, human T-lymphotropic virus type 1, bovine leukemia virus, walleye dermal sarcoma virus, and human foamy virus. Molecular models were used to interpret the similarities and differences in specificity between these retroviral proteases. The results showed that the retroviral proteases had similar preferences (Phe and Tyr) for the P1 position in this sequence context, but differences were found for the P3 and P4 positions. Importantly, the sizes of the P3 and P4 residues appear to be a major contributor for specificity. The substrate specificities correlated well with the phylogenetic tree of the retroviruses. Furthermore, while the specificities of some enzymes belonging to different genera appeared to be very similar (e.g., those of AMV and MMTV), the specificities of the primate lentiviral proteases substantially differed from that observed for a nonprimate lentiviral protease.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2008 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An intracellularly expressed defective human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) protease (PR) monomer could function as a dominant-negative inhibitor of the enzyme that requires dimerization for activity. Based on in silico studies, two mutant PRs harboring hydrophilic mutations, capable of forming favorable inter- and intra-subunit interactions, were selected: PR(RE) containing Asp25Arg and Gly49Glu mutations, and PR(RER) containing an additional Ile50Arg mutation. The mutants were expressed and tested by PR assays, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and cell culture experiments. The mutant PRs showed dose-dependent inhibition of the wild-type PR in a fluorescent microtiter plate PR assay. Furthermore, both mutants were retained by hexahistidine-tagged wild-type HIV-1 PR immobilized on nickel-chelate affinity resin. For the first time, heterodimerization between wild-type and dominant-negative mutant PRs were also demonstrated by NMR spectroscopy. (1)H-(15)N Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence NMR spectra showed that although PR(RE) has a high tendency to aggregate, PR(RER) exists mainly as a folded monomer at 25-35 microM concentration, but in the presence of wild-type PR in a ratio of 1:1, heterodimerization occurs with both mutants. While the recombinant virus containing the PR(RE) sequence showed only very low level of expression, expression of the viral proteins of the virus with the PR(RER) sequence was comparable with that of the wild-type. In cell culture experiments, infectivity of viral particles containing PR(RER) protein was reduced by 82%, at mutant to wild-type infective DNA ratio of 2:1.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Protein Engineering Design and Selection
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the transcription pattern of Nod-like receptors (NLRs) and inflammasome components (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD [ASC], CARD inhibitor of NFkB-activating ligands [Cardinal], and caspase-1) in human corneal epithelial cells obtained from healthy individuals undergoing photorefractive keratectomy and in immortalized human corneal epithelial cells (HCE-T).
Human corneal epithelial cells were taken from the eyes of healthy individuals by epithelial ablation for photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). The SV-40 immortalized human corneal epithelial cell line (HCE-T) was cultured. mRNA obtained from the cells was reverse transcribed and subjected to quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) measurements. Protein obtained from HCE-T cells was studied using the western blot technique. HCE-T cells were irradiated by UV-B light or treated with ultrapure peptidoglycan, and the effects were studied at the mRNA and protein level while the supernatant of the cells was tested for the presence of various cytokines by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods.
mRNA levels of the studied proteins in the primary cells of the donors were similar in most cases. The transcription of Nod1, Nod2, NLRX1, Nalp1, and Cardinal was similar in the two cell types. While the expression of Nalp3 and Nalp10 was higher in HCE-T cells, ASC and caspase-1 showed higher transcription levels in the primary cells. NLRC5 and Nalp7 were hardly detectable in the studied cells. Functionality of the Nod1/Nod2 system was demonstrated by increased phosphorylation of IkB upon Nod1/Nod2 agonist ultrapure peptidoglycan treatment in HCE-T cells. While UV-B irradiation exerted a downregulation of both Nalp and Nod mRNAs as well as those of inflammasome components in HCE-T cells, longer incubation of the cells after exposure resulted in recovery or upregulation only of the Nalp sensors. At the protein level, we detected a short isoform of Nalp1 and its expression changed in a similar way as its RNA expression, but we could not detect Nalp3 protein. Among the studied cytokines, only IL-6 was detected in the supernatant of HCE-T cells. Its constitutively secreted level increased by only twofold after 24 h of UV-B irradiation.
Based on our experiments, UV-B irradiation appears to exert an immunosilencing effect on the HCE-T cells by downregulating most of the sensor molecules as well as the components of the inflammasomes. Expression profiling of corneal epithelial cells suggested that the HCE-T cells may not serve as a good model for Nalp3 or Nalp1 inflammasome studies but it may be better suited for studies on the Nod1/Nod2 systems.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a valuable model system for understanding human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1); the availability of an infectious BLV clone, together with animal-model systems, will help to explore anti-HTLV-1 strategies. Nevertheless, the specificity and inhibitor sensitivity of the BLV protease (PR) have not been characterized in detail. To facilitate such studies, a molecular model for the enzyme was built. The specificity of the BLV PR was studied with a set of oligopeptides representing naturally occurring cleavage sites in various retroviruses. Unlike HTLV-1 PR, but similar to the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) enzyme, BLV PR was able to hydrolyse the majority of the peptides, mostly at the same position as did their respective host PRs, indicating a broad specificity. When amino acid residues of the BLV PR substrate-binding sites were replaced by equivalent ones of the HIV-1 PR, many substitutions resulted in inactive protein, indicating a great sensitivity to mutations, as observed previously for the HTLV-1 PR. The specificity of the enzyme was studied further by using a series of peptides containing amino acid substitutions in a sequence representing a naturally occurring HTLV-1 PR cleavage site. Also, inhibitors of HIV-1 PR, HTLV-1 PR and other retroviral proteases were tested on the BLV PR. Interestingly, the BLV PR was more susceptible than the HTLV-1 PR to the inhibitors tested. Therefore, despite the specificity differences, in terms of mutation intolerance and inhibitor susceptibility of the PR, BLV and the corresponding animal-model systems may provide good models for testing of PR inhibitors that target HTLV-1.
Preview · Article · Aug 2007 · Journal of General Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The protease (PR) of Murine leukemia virus (MLV) was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified to homogeneity and characterized by using various assay methods, including HPLC-based, photometric and fluorometric activity measurements. The specificity of the bacterially expressed PR was similar to that of virion-extracted PR. Compared with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) PR, the pH optimum of the MLV enzyme was higher. The specificity of the MLV PR was further compared with that of HIV-1 PR by using various oligopeptides representing naturally occurring cleavage sites in MLV and HIV-1, as well as by using bacterially expressed proteins having part of the MLV Gag. Inhibitors designed against HIV-1 PR were also active on MLV PR, although all of the tested ones were substantially less potent on this enzyme than on HIV-1 PR. Nevertheless, amprenavir, the most potent inhibitor against MLV PR, was also able to block Gag processing in MLV-infected cells. These results indicate that, in spite of the similar function in the life cycle of virus infection, the two PRs are only distantly related in their specificity.
Preview · Article · Jun 2006 · Journal of General Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The specificities of the proteases of 11 retroviruses representing each of the seven genera of the family Retroviridae were studied using a series of oligopeptides with amino acid substitutions in the P2 position of a naturally occurring type 1 cleavage site (Val-Ser-Gln-Asn-Tyr Pro-Ile-Val-Gln; the arrow indicates the site of cleavage) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). This position was previously found to be one of the most critical in determining the substrate specificity differences of retroviral proteases. Specificities at this position were compared for HIV-1, HIV-2, equine infectious anemia virus, avian myeloblastosis virus, Mason-Pfizer monkey virus, mouse mammary tumor virus, Moloney murine leukemia virus, human T-cell leukemia virus type 1, bovine leukemia virus, human foamy virus, and walleye dermal sarcoma virus proteases. Three types of P2 preferences were observed: a subgroup of proteases preferred small hydrophobic side chains (Ala and Cys), and another subgroup preferred large hydrophobic residues (Ile and Leu), while the protease of HIV-1 preferred an Asn residue. The specificity distinctions among the proteases correlated well with the phylogenetic tree of retroviruses prepared solely based on the protease sequences. Molecular models for all of the proteases studied were built, and they were used to interpret the results. While size complementarities appear to be the main specificity-determining features of the S2 subsite of retroviral proteases, electrostatic contributions may play a role only in the case of HIV proteases. In most cases the P2 residues of naturally occurring type 1 cleavage site sequences of the studied proteases agreed well with the observed P2 preferences.
Full-text · Article · May 2005 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The proteinase of human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1), similar to the proteinase of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), is a potential target for chemotherapy, since the virus is associated with a number of human diseases. A microtiter plate fluorescent assay was developed for the HTLV-1 and HIV-1 proteinases for direct comparison of the inhibition profiles of the enzymes. It was established that, except for Indinavir, none of the inhibitors designed against the HIV-1 proteinase were able to inhibit the HTLV-1 proteinase in the studied concentration range, while two reduced peptide bond-containing peptides having the sequence of HTLV-1 cleavage sites were inhibitors of the HTLV-1 proteinase. One of these was potent enough to be used for active site titration of the HTLV-1 proteinase.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with a number of human diseases; therefore, its protease is a potential target for chemotherapy. To compare the specificity of HTLV-1 protease with that of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease, oligopeptides representing naturally occurring cleavage sites in various retroviruses were tested. The number of hydrolyzed peptides as well as the specificity constants suggested a substantially broader specificity of the HIV protease. Amino acid residues of HTLV-1 protease substrate-binding sites were replaced by equivalent ones of HIV-1 protease. Most of the single and multiple mutants had altered specificity and a dramatically reduced folding and catalytic capability, suggesting that mutations are not well tolerated in HTLV-1 protease. The catalytically most efficient mutant was that with the flap residues of HIV-1 protease. The inhibition profile of the mutants was also determined for five inhibitors used in clinical practice and inhibitor analogs of HTLV-1 cleavage sites. Except for indinavir, the HIV-1 protease inhibitors did not inhibit wild type and most of the mutant HTLV-1 proteases. The wild type HTLV-1 protease was inhibited by the reduced peptide bond-containing substrate analogs, whereas the mutants showed various degrees of weakened binding capability. Most interesting, the enzyme with HIV-1-like residues in the flap region was the most sensitive to the HIV-1 protease inhibitors and least sensitive to the HTLV-1 protease inhibitors, indicating that the flap plays an important role in defining the specificity differences of retroviral proteases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Számos, gyógyszerrezisztenciában megjelenő mutációt tartalmazó HIV-1 proteináz specificitását, gátolhatósági profilját és dimerstabilitását jellemeztük. A gátolhatósági profilok elkészítéséhez nagykapacitású floreszcens mérési módszert dolgoztunk ki. Eredményeink arra utaltak, hogy a mutánsok gátolhatóságát jelentősen befolyásolta a ligandok konformációs flexibilitása, továbbá az enzim egyik régiója képes volt mutációktól függetlenül a ligandhoz illeszkedni. Cefalosporin származékokat tartalmazó vegyületkönyvtár szűrésével különleges, unkompetitív mechanizmusú HIV-1 proteináz inhibitorokat azonosítottunk. A HIV-1 fertőzés korai szakaszában szubsztrátként valószínűsített nukleokapszid fehérje hasításával kapcsolatban szubsztrát-mutagenezis és kinetikai vizsgálatokat végeztünk és a mutációkat a HIV vírusba bejuttatva korrelációt tapasztaltunk a fertőzőképesség és a nukleokapszid fehérje proteolitikus érzékenysége között. Különböző retrovírusok természetes hasítási helyeit reprezentáló oligopeptidekkel összehasonlítottuk retrovirális proteinázok specificitását, mely alapján a HTLV-1 proteáz szubsztrátspecificitása meglehetősen szűknek bizonyult. Egy HIV-1 természetes hasítási helyet reprezentáló oligopeptid sorozattal végzett korábbi szubsztrátspecificitási vizsgálatainkat részben kiegészítettük úgy, hogy az adatsor már 11 retrovirális proteáz adatait tartalmazza. Egy alhely feltérképezésével kapott eredményeink jól korreláltak a retrovírusok filogenetikai analízisével. | Specificity, dimer stability and inhibition profile was determined for several HIV-1 protease mutants harboring mutations occurring in drug resistance. To perform the inhibition profiling, a new, high-throughput fluorescent assay was developed. Our results suggested that the inhibition of the mutants was stronlgy dependent on the conformational flexibility of the inhibitors, furthermore, a critical region of the enzyme was able to fit flexibly to the ligands, independently from its mutations. Screening a library of cephalosporin derivatives, inhibitors uniqally acting in an uncompetitive manner were identified. Mutational and kinetic studies were performed on the nucleocapsid protein, which is suspected to be a substrate of the viral protease in the early phase of infection, and mutations were introduced into an infectious HIV-1 clone. There was a correlation between the protease sensitivity of mutant nucleocapsid proteins and the infectivity of the clones. The specificity of various retroviral proteinases was compared using a large set of oligopeptide substrates representing naturally occurring cleavage sites of various retroviruses: the specificity of HTLV-1 protease appeared to be fairly narrow. We have complemented our previous specificity studies performed with a substrate set representing an HIV-1 cleavage site to probe a substrate binding subsite of 11 retroviral proteases. The results obtained correlated well with the philogenetic analysis of retroviruses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A tudományos iskola keretében új interdiszciplináris kutatási terület megteremtésére került sor az apoptótikus sejtek és az azokat eltávolító sejtek közötti harmadi szinapszis tanulmányozására. Megállapítottuk, hogy a transzglutamináz 2 (TG2) enzim szerepet játszik az apoptotikus sejtek eltávolításában, az enzim hiányában autoimmun kórkép alakúl ki. A TG2 bejuthat a sejmagba, sejtbiokémiai hatása összefügg génkifejeződés befolyásolásával. Alzheimer kórban a TG2 résztvesz kovalensen összekötött fehérje aggregátumok létrehozásában. A TG2 védőhatást fejt ki a sejtelhalással szemben májsejtekben és szívizomsejtekben G fehérje, ill. protein diszulfid izomeráz aktivitásával. A PPAR? szerepet játszik az apoptótikus sejteket eltávolító fagocitáló képesség kialakításában fokozva fagocitózis gének kifejeződését. A PPAR?, a retinoid receptor és az LXR receptor szignál utak összekapcsolódnak a makrofágok koleszterol szintjének szabályozásában. A PPAR? aktiváció hatására a dendritikus sejekből fokozott fagocitózisra, hatékony lipid prezentációra és iNKT aktivitásra képes alpopuláció alakul. Apopto-fagocita Taqman Low Density Array-t fejleszttünkl 94 gén mennyiségi kifejeződése vizsgálatára. Az autofágiával elhaló sejtek eltávolítása szintén fagocitózissal történik, specifikus gének indukálódnak. A dendritikus sejtek kölcsönhatása apoptótikus vagy nekrotikus sejtekkel alkalmas az immunválasz finom szabályozására. | In the supported Research School a new interdisciplinary research area has been developed to study the third synapse formed between apoptotic cells and those which engolfe them. It has been established that the transglutaminase 2 (TG2) enzyme plays an important role in the clearance of apoptotic cells, the lack of this enzyme leads to autoimmune disease. TG2 can enter the nucleus and its cell biochemical effects are related to modulation of gene expression and modification of the cytoskeleton. In Alzheimer's disease TG2 participates in the formation of covalently cross-linked protein aggregates. TG2 can protect hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes against apoptosis through its G protein and protein disulphide isomerase activities. PPARγ contributes to the development of phagocytic capacity of macrophages by inducing specific phagocytic genes. The PPARγ, rretinoid and LXR receptor signal pathways are interlinked in regulating cholesterol content of cells. Activation of PPARγ in dendritic cells leads to the development of a subpopulation with increased phagocytic capacity, effective lipid presentation and iNKT activity. An apopto-phagocytic Taqman Low Density array has been developed for quantitative measuring of 94 genes in parallel. Cells dying by autophagy are removed by the same mechanism as apoptotic cells while specific phagocytic genes are induced. Dendritic cells interacting with apoptotic cells can fine tune the immune system.