G K Yasuda

University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, Washington, United States

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Publications (5)37.82 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The study of paternal effects on development provides a means to identify sperm-supplied products required for fertilization and the initiation of embryogenesis. This review describes paternal effects on animal development and discusses their implications for the role of the sperm in egg activation, centrosome activity, and biparental inheritance in different animal species. Paternal effects observed in Caenorhahdiris elegans and in mammals are briefly reviewed. Emphasis is placed on paternal effects in Drosophila melanogasrer. Genetic and cytologic evidence for paternal imprinting on chromosome behavior and gene expression in Drosophila are summarized. These effects are compared to chromosome imprinting that leads to paternal chromosome loss in sciarid and coccid insects and mammalian gametic imprinting that results in differential expression of paternal and maternal loci. The phenotypes caused by several early-acting maternal effect mutations identify specific maternal factors that affect the behavior of paternal components during fertilization and the early embryonic mitotic divisions. In addition, maternal effect defects suggest that two types of regulatory mechanisms coordinate parental components and synchronize their progression through mitosis. Some activities are coordinated by independent responses of parental components to shared regula-tory factors, while others require communication between paternal and maternal components. Analyses of the paternal effects mutations sneaky, K81, pulernal loss, and Horka have identified paternal products that play a role in mediating the initial response of the sperm to the egg cytoplasm, participation of the male pronucleus in the first mitosis, and stable inheritance of the paternal chromosomes in the early embryo.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1998 · Current Topics in Developmental Biology
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    G K Yasuda · G Schubiger · B T Wakimoto
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    ABSTRACT: The vast majority of known male sterile mutants of Drosophila melanogaster fail to produce mature sperm or mate properly. The ms(3) K81(1) mutation is one of a rare class of male sterile mutations in which sterility is caused by developmental arrest after sperm entry into the egg. Previous studies showed that males homozygous for the K81(1) mutation produce progeny that arrest at either of two developmental stages. Most embryos arrest during early nuclear cycles, whereas the remainder are haploid embryos that arrest at a later stage. This description of the mutant phenotype was based on the analysis of a single allele isolated from a natural population. It was therefore unclear whether this unique paternal effect phenotype reflected the normal function of the gene. The genetic analysis and initial molecular characterization of five new K81 mutations are described here. Hemizygous conditions and heteroallelic combinations of the alleles were associated with male sterility caused by defects in embryogenesis. No other mutant phenotypes were observed. Thus, the K81 gene acted as a strict paternal effect gene. Moreover, the biphasic pattern of developmental arrest was common to all the alleles. These findings strongly suggested that the unusual embryonic phenotype caused by all five new alleles was due to loss of function of the K81+ gene. The K81 gene is therefore the first clear example of a strict paternal effect gene in Drosophila. Based on the embryonic lethal phenotypes, we suggest that the K81+ gene encodes a sperm-specific product that is essential for the male pronucleus to participate in the first few embryonic nuclear divisions.
    Preview · Article · Jun 1995 · Genetics
  • Glenn K. Yasuda · Gerold Schubiger
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    ABSTRACT: The question of how early embryonic events are temporally regulated has traditionally been tied to the mid-blastula transition (MBT). This concept has directed the studies in Xenopus and influenced the studies in other organisms. By examining the weaknesses in the concept of MBT, we hope to refocus the study of temporal regulation on the many developmental transitions that do exist and to clear the way for an alternative viewpoint that emphasizes the similarities between developmental processes in different organisms.
    No preview · Article · May 1992 · Trends in Genetics
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    G K Yasuda · J Baker · G Schubiger
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    ABSTRACT: The Drosophila embryo undergoes a developmental transition during cycle 14 when it initiates asynchronous mitotic cycles and markedly increases its rate of zygotic transcription. The nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio has been proposed to be the single factor that temporally regulates this developmental transition. We altered the ratio in the embryo and analyzed the consequences on the cell cycle program and on the transcripts of specific genes. These genes were chosen because their transcripts normally undergo changes in pattern during cycle 14. We found evidence that the nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio is read and interpreted locally to regulate the cell cycle program. Based on the response of the transcripts to changes in the ratio, we found evidence that at least two classes of temporal regulatory mechanisms control these transcripts. We therefore propose two corresponding classes of transcripts: (1) nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio dependent; and (2) nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio independent or time correlated. The temporal regulation of the ratio-independent transcripts may be dependent on developmental time. We conclude that multiple modes of temporal regulation underlie the events of the developmental transition in Drosophila embryogenesis.
    Preview · Article · Nov 1991 · Genes & Development
  • G K Yasuda · J Baker · G Schubiger
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    ABSTRACT: The early embryonic divisions of Drosophila melanogaster are characterized by rapid, synchronized changes of the nuclei and surrounding cytoskeleton. We report evidence that these changes are carried out by two separately organized systems. DNA was sufficient to cause assembly of nuclear lamina and the formation of nuclear membrane with pore structures. Free centrosomes were correlated with the formation of microtubule, microfilament and spectrin networks in the absence of nuclei. In addition, we found that the morphology of the cytoskeleton associated with the free centrosomes cycled in response to the embryonic cell cycle cues. These observations suggest that the centrosomes may be responsible for the organization of this extensive cytoskeleton. The early divisions may therefore result from the independent cycling of two systems, the nucleus and the surrounding cytoskeleton, that respond separately to the mitotic cues in the embryo and function together to give the synchronized early divisions. The Drosophila embryo has an "intermediate" mitotic system in which the nuclear membrane does not break down completely during mitosis. We speculate that the principles of cytoskeleton organization in this system may be different from those of the Xenopus "open" mitotic system.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1991 · Development