[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Otosclerosis: Shift in bone conduction after stapedotomy. Objectives: To analyze changes in bone conduction (BC) thresholds before and after stapedotomy in patients with clinical otosclerosis with a focus on the Carhart notch, which is defined as a significant loss of BC at a certain audiometric frequency. Methodology: Retrospective case review of pure tone audiometry (PTA) in 213 patients who underwent a stapedotomy at a tertiary referral center between 2004 and 2011. The patients were grouped by age and the frequency of the Carhart notch. The non-operated ear was also evaluated. Results: The Carhart notch was present on pre-operative audiometry in 158 (74%) patients at 0.5 (n=18, 8.45%), 1 (n=25, 11.70%), or 2 kHz (n=115, 54.0%). We measured a mean postoperative improvement in BC of 7.5, 8.4, and 8.8 dB HL. Pre-operatively, 55 (25.8%) patients did not exhibit a typical notch configuration. The mean gain in BC, defined on PTA according to the AAO-HNS criteria (0.5, 1,2 and 3, or 4 kHz), was 1.8 dB HL after stapedotomy. Conclusion: The Carhart notch was not solely related to the 2 kHz frequency. The greatest gain in BC after stapedotomy for otosclerosis occurred at the notch frequency.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Acta oto-rhino-laryngologica Belgica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Multiple, minimally invasive surgical techniques have been developed over the last few decades for the management of sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHTP). However, in cases with multiglandular disease, bilateral cervical exploration remains the gold standard. Therefore, it is important to have an accurate estimation of the incidence of multiglandular disease in sporadic PHTP.
698 patients were treated for PHTP between 1993 and 2010 at the University Hospitals Leuven, using the bilateral cervical exploration method. After excluding cases of multiple endocrine carcinoma syndrome, the incidences of double adenoma and multiple gland hyperplasia were investigated in these patients. Age, gender, imaging results, serum calcium and parathyroid hormone concentrations were analyzed and compared to the data of 50 randomly-selected, PHTP patients with solitary adenomas.
6.6% and 2.4% of the patients with sporadic PHTP had double adenomas and multiple gland hyperplasia, respectively. The female/male ratio was 4.8 (38/8) and 1.8 (11/6), and the average age was 63 and 52 yrs for patients with double adenomas and multiple gland hyperplasia, respectively. The patients with solitary adenomas had a female/male ratio of 3.5, and an average age of 60 yrs. There were no significant differences in serum calcium or parathyroid hormone concentrations between patients with multiglandular disease and those with solitary adenomas.
Multiglandular disease occurs in 9% of patients with sporadic PHTP, and cannot be excluded before surgery. This incidence must be considered when using minimally invasive techniques for treatment of sporadic PHTP. In cases of multiglandular disease, bilateral cervical exploration is indicated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Newborn hearing screening was implemented in Flanders about fifteen years ago. The aim of this study was to determine the aetiology of hearing loss detected by the Flemish screening programme.
From 1997 to 2011, 569 neonates were referred to our tertiary referral centre after failed neonatal screening with Auditory Brainstem Responses. In case hearing loss (HL) was confirmed, further diagnostic testing was launched. A retrospective chart review was performed analysing the degree of HL, risk factor and aetiology.
Metabolic disorders (0.5%), infectious diseases (35.8%), congenital malformations (6.1%) and genetic abnormalities (19.8%), whether or not syndromic, were retained. In 35% of the subjects no obvious aetiology could be determined in the current study.
In contrast to the literature findings, this series shows a genetic syndromic cause in 80% of the genetic bilateral HL cases. On the other hand connexin positive diagnoses were mostly underrepresented in this study, showing the need for better screening.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To monitor the noise exposure of care providers during otological surgery due to drilling and suction in the operating room.
A clinical study monitoring different standard otosurgical procedures was conducted; cochlear implantation (CI), mastotympanoplasty, and mastoidectomy alone. Noise exposure to the surgeon and assistant were monitored with wireless personal noise dosimetry and stationary sound monitoring. Both maximum peak level in dBC (Lpeak) and time-average sound pressure level in dBA (equivalent level or Leq) were measured during drilling episodes. Frequency analysis in one third octaves covering the frequency bands 6.3 Hz to 20 k Hz was performed using a sound analyzing program.
When averaged over the entire procedure, the sound pressure level was highest for the surgeon and the assistant with values of 76.0 dBA and 72.5 dBA, respectively, during CI. Lpeak was 135.9 dBC. Leq for the stationary sound measurement was 74.2 dBA. During cortical bone work using a cutting burr, 84.6 dBA was measured. Mean values of L95% (estimation of the background noise) were between 55.8 dBA and 61.2 dBA. Frequency analysis showed the highest sound pressure level for all procedures was between 2.5 kHz and 3.15 kHz.
This is the first study to use personal sound dosimetry to monitor noise exposure during otosurgical drilling. In accordance with other studies, the results presented show sound levels below international occupational noise level regulations. However, the measured noise exposure during drilling could have negative effects on care providers based on unfavorable acoustical comfort.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To assess the impact of fifteen years of universal neonatal hearing screening in Flanders on language development and the educational setting.
An analysis of the database of Kind en Gezin from 1997 to 2012 and a long-term evaluation of the children referred to our centre after failed neonatal hearing screening. The CELF and PPVT language tests were performed.
Between 1997 and August 2012, bilateral hearing loss was confirmed in 2393 children in Flanders, of whom 11.4% were referred to our tertiary centre. The educational setting and language development of 84 children older than 5 years was evaluated and 54% of them had additional disabilities. Of the children without additional disabilities, 84% attended mainstream schools; 42% of children with additional disabilities entered mainstream education with additional support. There was a significant correlation between the number of additional disabilities and the education level (p < 0.001) and between the degree of hearing loss and educational placement (p < 0.001). Data on language development were available for 76% of the children and a significant correlation could be demonstrated only between the results of the PPVT language and the number of additional handicaps (p < 0.008).
The majority of children receiving early treatment after neonatal hearing screening enter mainstream education. The number of additional disabilities has a significant effect on education level and language development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Tonsillectomy is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in children; its main indications are recurrent episodes of acute tonsillitis and adenotonsillar hypertrophy. The effectiveness of tonsillectomy for severe recurrent tonsillitis is generally accepted; however its socio-economic cost is less well investigated. This study aims to determine and compare the societal cost of a tonsillectomy and a severe throat infection.
The costs for both tonsillectomy and severe throat infection were evaluated. Costs of the surgical procedure and hospital stay were calculated based on resource use and personnel input at the participating hospital. The cost of work-related disability for both treatments was measured based on a questionnaire filled in by 275 parents of children undergoing a tonsillectomy. Data from two Belgian institutions (NIS and FOD) were used to calculate the cost of parents' absenteeism.
An episode of acute tonsillitis in the child results in a longer period of parents' work absenteeism (mean of 3.1 +/- 0.3 days) compared to tonsillectomy (2.2 +/- 0.2 days). The cost of economic productivity loss amounts to 613 Euros (NIS) or 759 Euros (FOD) for acute tonsillitis and 435 Euros (NIS) or 539 Euros (FOD) for a tonsillectomy. The medical costs linked to the surgical procedure at the local department correspond to 535 Euros and for an acute tonsillitis to 46 Euros.
From societal perspective, a tonsillectomy costs the equivalent of 1.4 times the cost of a severe throat infection. This indicates that in children suffering from recurrent acute tonsillitis, watchful waiting results in a higher cost compared to tonsillectomy, given the cumulative costs of parents' absenteeism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Recurrent tonsillitis and upper respiratory tract obstruction due to adenotonsillar hypertrophy are the most common indications for (adeno)tonsillectomy ((A)TE). Symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection and obstruction can, however, be attributed to lower airway pathology and thus treated with respiratory medication - this is non-antimicrobial medication used for lower respiratory diseases like bronchitis, bronchiolitis, asthma and episodic wheezing. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the current (A)TE practice in Belgium on the use of respiratory medication in subjects aged 0-15.
Retrospective data on 11.114 subjects aged 0-15 years old who underwent (A)TE from January 1st 2002 until Sept 30th 2003 were retrieved from the database of the Christelijke Mutualiteit, the largest mutual health insurance society in Belgium. We compared the use of respiratory medication 12 months before and 12 months after (A)TE.
Out of 11.114 subjects, 4.654 received at least one prescription for respiratory medication in the year before and/or after (A)TE. In this subgroup, the median respiratory medication use reduced with 32% in the year after surgery.
Compared with the year before surgery, the median use of respiratory medication in subjects aged 0-15 drastically reduces in the year after (A)TE. A possible reason for this reduction is that children with upper airway obstruction and infections are often wrongly diagnosed as having lower airway problems.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and significance of traditional risk factors associated with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in a population of 615 neonates who attended the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the University Hospital in Leuven, Belgium between January 2005 and December 2007.
Auditory brainstem response (ABR) audiometry using 40 dB stimuli was performed in all 615 neonates. A retrospective medical database analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of 14 predetermined risk factors. The evaluated risk factors were ototoxic medication, hyperbilirubinemia, in utero infections (including CMV, rubella, syphilis, herpes, and toxoplasmosis), craniofacial anomalies, syndromes associated with SNHL, low birth weight (< 1,500 g), low Apgar score, mechanical ventilation lasting for 5 days or longer, bacterial meningitis, family history of hereditary childhood SNHL, endocranial hemorrhage, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, convulsions, and sepsis
Uni- or bilateral hearing impairment was diagnosed in 25 out of 615 neonates (4.1%). In utero infections (especially CMV), craniofacial anomalies, and syndromes known to include SNHL were significant risk factors. For the remaining risk factors, no significant correlation with SNHL was found.
In this study, only in utero infections (especially CMV), craniofacial anomalies, and syndromes known to include SNHL were significant risk factors associated with SNHL. Adequate management of hyperbilirubinemia and ototoxic drug administration may eliminate some of the major historical risk factors associated with SNHL in NICU neonates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: PROBLEM/OBJECTIVE: Resection of pathological parathyroid glands is the only curative therapy in primary hyperparathyroidism. Adequate pre-operative localization of the pathological glands is very useful, whichever surgical technique is preferred.
The aim of our study was to evaluate and compare high resolution ultrasonography and sestamibi scintigraphy as pre-operative imaging techniques and to explore their relationship with certain demographic and biochemical variables.
Data from 368 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism referred for surgery were retrospectively analysed. The results of pre-operative imaging were compared with the operative findings and the anatomopathological report.
In predicting the correct side of the lesion (right or left), ultrasonography had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 84%, whereas sestamibi imaging had a PPV of 93%. If both imaging techniques had a concordant positive result, the PPV was 99%. The PPV in predicting the correct quadrant, however, was only 61% for sestamibi scintigraphy and 40% for ultrasonography.
In our study, sestamibi imaging was better than ultrasonography as a single pre-operative localization imaging method for primary hyperparathyroidism. A concordant positive result was exceedingly reliable in indicating the side of the lesion. It seemed far more difficult to predict the quadrant correctly, especially because of misinterpretation of the upper adenomas.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A tonsillectomy, with or without an adenotomy ((A)TE), is a common surgical procedure in children. The most important indications are recurrent tonsillitis and upper airway obstruction secondary to adenotonsillar hypertrophy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the current (A)TE practice in Belgium reduced the need for medical care.
The database of the Christelijke Mutualiteit, one of the most important health insurance organizations in Belgium, provided data on approximately 11,000 (A)TE's in children aged 0 to 15 years, performed by different ENT-specialists from Jan 1st 2002 to Sept 30th 2003. We compared the use of antibiotics during the 12 months before and the 12 months after (A)TE. We also compared the number of visits to pediatricians and general practitioners during the 12 months before and the 12 months after surgery.
The median antibiotic use dropped from 4 boxes in the year before the operation to 1 box in the year after the operation. The median number of doctor visits also dropped from 7 visits in the year before to 4 visits in the year after (A)TE.
Although there are no generally accepted guidelines on the indications for (A)TE in Belgium, the current practice effectively reduced the need for medical care.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: In cases of re-operation for secondary hyperparathyroidism, to evaluate the extent to which the location of recurrent hyperplasia was predicted by (1) operative data from the first intervention, and (2) pre-operative imaging (before the re-operation).
The files of 18 patients undergoing surgery for recurrent secondary hyperparathyroidism were reviewed. The surgical findings were compared both with the report of the initial operation and with the results of pre-operative imaging (i.e. ultrasonography, Mibi scintigraphy or computed tomography).
The location of the recurrent hyperplasia corresponded with the data for the primary intervention in about one-third of patients. There was a partial correlation in one-third of patients, and no correlation at all in one-third. Pre-operative imaging enabled better prediction of the location of recurrent disease.
Surgeons should have both sources of information at their disposal when planning a re-intervention for secondary hyperparathyroidism. However, in our series, the predictive value of imaging was superior to that of information deduced from the previous surgical record.
No preview · Article · Dec 2007 · The Journal of Laryngology & Otology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: New entities, such as 'subclinical' over- and undersubstitution, are easily diagnosed after thyroid surgery due to improved testing methods, and the incidence of thyroidectomy with lifelong hormone substitution is increasing. Thus, there is a need to review conventional replacement therapy after thyroid surgery. We investigated the adequacy of our thyroid hormone replacement therapy for three months after total-, subtotal-, and hemithyroidectomy using an upper reference limit of thyrotropin (TSH) of 4.6 mU/L.
Eighty-seven patients undergoing thyroidectomy for benign thyroid pathology participated. Levothyroxine (L-T4) treatment began five days after surgery. Preoperatively euthyroid patients received 150 microg L-T4 daily following total thyroidectomy, 100 microg L-T4 after subtotal thyroidectomy, and 50 microg L-T4 after hemithyroidectomy. Preoperatively hyperthyroid patients received 100 microg L-T4 following total thyroidectomy and 50 microg L-T4 following subtotal thyroidectomy. An average of six weeks after surgery, thyrotropin (TSH) was measured (reference limits 0.15-4.60 mU/L), and necessary dose adjustments were made.
Of the patients who were preoperatively euthyroid, 45% with total thyroidectomy, 42% with subtotal thyroidectomy, and 17% with hemithyroidectomy required L-T4 dose adjustments. Of the patients who were preoperatively hyperthyroid, 60% of those with total thyroidectomy and all of those with subtotal thyroidectomy required L-T4 dose adjustments.
To avoid over- and undersubstitution after thyroidectomy, an optimal replacement therapy dose is necessary. A small majority of our preoperatively euthyroid patients received adequate therapy. Endocrinological follow-up six weeks after surgery revealed the need for L-T4 dose adjustments, especially in preoperatively hyperthyroid patients. When the extent of resection was similar for hyperthyroid and euthyroid patients, the same initial dose of L-T4 was justified.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Middle ear disease is a frequent problem in young children with cleft palate (CP). Less is known about otological status in the adolescent CP population. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of current knowledge in the literature concerning the aetiology of middle ear disease in CP patients and the middle ear status of older children with CP, and to compare the situation in our centre to this background through an assessment of the otological status of patients in our CP population.
A literature review was conducted to summarise current knowledge about middle ear status in CP patients. A retrospective analysis was performed of the medical records of 20 CP patients between the ages of 10 and 15 who were treated and followed at the University Hospitals Leuven. The available otological data, otoscopic findings, information about hearing and surgery performed was collected for each patient when aged three and above ten years.
Current knowledge indicates that middle ear function improves as CP patients get older. In our study, otoscopic appearance was acceptable in 63% of ears of children aged over ten years of age. Otitis media with effusion (OME) was far less frequent above this age than around the age of 3, with a decrease from 50% to 13% of all ears. Above the age of 10, tympanic perforations were present in 13% of ears and retraction of the tympanic membrane in 23%.
Despite a very high incidence of OME in young CP patients, the long-term otological prognosis is not necessarily sinister. A favourable natural evolution, diligent otological follow-up, early diagnosis and treatment of middle ear disease with the use of tympanostomy tubes are the likely contributors to the acceptable otological result in older CP patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The skeletal lesions of primary hyperparathyroidism, including brown tumour, are rare nowadays, with the practice of checking serum calcium levels leading to an earlier diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism. Clinical, laboratory, radiographic and histological investigations can lead to a correct diagnosis. Treatment of brown tumour focuses on the hyperparathyroidism, and is usually followed by a regression of the brown tumour. The diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism and brown tumour should be considered in patients with hypercalcaemia and an osteolytic expansive bone lesion. We present a patient where a brown tumour of the mandible was the presenting symptom of primary hyperparathyroidism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The optimal surgical management of well-differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) remains a controversial topic. Preoperative and peroperative investigations quite frequently fail to detect thyroid cancer in cold nodules, and only postoperative histological examination reveals malignancy. In these cases many physicians perform a completion thyroidectomy. Others recommend a conservative approach with close follow-up because of the increased risk of complications after re-operation. In our department, routine management includes completion thyroidectomy once the histopathological report concludes that there is carcinoma, except in cases of papillary carcinoma measuring less than 1 cm. The aim of our study was to determine the incidence of contralateral malignancy and of complications after completion thyroidectomy. We reviewed the records of 29 patients--25 women and 4 men-- who all underwent completion thyroidectomy because of an unexpected diagnosis of DTC. Residual malignancy was found in 12 patients (41.4%) after completion thyroidectomy. In ten patients (34.5%) the malignancy was localised in the contralateral lobe and two patients (6.9%) had lymph node metastases. Postoperative transient hypocalcaemia (< 8.0 mg/dl) occurred in five patients (17.2%) and permanent hypocalcaemia (lasting longer than 6 months) was a feature in two patients. One patient suffered transient laryngeal nerve injury occurred in one patient and there were no permanent lesions. In conclusion, we found residual DTC in 41.4% of patients undergoing reintervention. Because of the rather low re-operation rate, we prefer to perform a completion thyroidectomy to remove potential occult malignancy and to allow for postoperative 131I-treatment in all patients with a diagnosis of malignancy in their thyroid lobectomy specimen, with the exception of papillary carcinoma < 1 cm.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The speaking fundamental frequency (SFF) and the intraindividual variation of the SFF during the reading of a Dutch standard text were measured in 30 female monozygotic twins (MT) and 30 dizygotic twins (DT), aged 15-29 years. A control group was created that consisted of 30 nonrelated paired individuals of equal age. Studying the intrapair correlation coefficients it seemed that the SFF was similar to a greater degree in MT and to a lesser degree in DT, while there was no correlation at all in nonrelated peers. These results are compatible with a genetic basis for the SFF. On the other hand, the intraindividual variation of the SFF was highly similar in MT and in DT (but not in nonrelated peers), so that for this parameter it was not possible to discern the influences of genetic disposition and shared environment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The files were studied of 300 patients operated for primary hyperparathyroidism for the first time. Their median age was 60 years. The female/male ratio was 3/1, but in the younger patients males and females were about equally present. Preoperatively, one third was considered as asymptomatic with respect to hyperparathyroidism. In this subgroup the hypercalcemia was detected coincidentally and the mean parathyroid hormone level was lower than in the others. Another third of the patients had nephrolithiasis, they were on the average younger and there were more males. Finally one third showed other symptoms as gastrointestinal disease, bone disease or general malaise. Intraoperatively, we found a solitary adenoma in 90% of the cases, a double adenoma in 5% (on each side of the neck in half of the cases) and hyperplasia in 4%. The adenomas had a tendency to occur more often in the upper parathyroid glands, but the difference was not important enough to influence the surgical technique. Hyperplasia patients were, on the average, younger and double adenoma patients older. The female/male ratio was 1/1 for hyperplasia and 15/1 for double adenoma.
No preview · Article · Feb 2001 · Acta oto-rhino-laryngologica Belgica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Serum levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium were studied in 132 patients, divided into three groups: unilateral thyroid-lobectomy, (sub)total thyroidectomy for non-toxic goitre and (sub)total thyroidectomy for hyperthyroidism. It was found that all types of thyroidectomy, even unilateral lobectomy, had a temporary influence on the PTH and calcium metabolism in the early postoperative period, albeit to different degrees. The effect was most pronounced after surgery for hyperthyroidism, which carries the greatest risk for postoperative hypocalcemia. The pathogenesis of transient postoperative hypocalcemia as well as the implications for the surgical management are discussed.
No preview · Article · Feb 2001 · Acta oto-rhino-laryngologica Belgica