[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study whether plasma viral load testing is helpful to exclude ones free from Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections from suspects in HIV antibody detections.
19 Specimens, which showed disconcordant results of the two HIV EIA testing (S/CO < 6) and indeterminated results of Western blot (WB) test, were selected. Viral load of the specimens were detected. A six-month follow up survey in detecting HIV antibody was conducted in these subjects.
None of these 19 cases was observed to be positive HIV viral loads and there was no any progress in WB bands development during the follow-up period. The possibility of HIV infection could be excluded.
When the specimens react with very low intensity in both EIA and WB, negative viral load result is conducive to exclude negative subjects from suspects in HIV antibody detections.
No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify a cost-efficient alternative antibody testing strategy for screening and confirmation of HIV infection by rapid simple tests (RSTs) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs).
Four RSTs (RST1, RST2, RST3, and RST4) and five ELISAs (ELISA1, ELISA2, ELISA3, ELISA4, and ELISA5) were evaluated in two phases by using banked and serum specimens prospectively collected at regional hospitals and voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) centers in Beijing. A total of 200 banked serum specimens were included in the first phase, including 62 HIV-positive, 127 HIV-negative and 11 indeterminate specimens. All specimens were tested by four RSTs and five ELISAs respectively. The second phase involved prospective testing of 389 routine specimens, including 92 HIV-positive, 287 HIV-negative, and 10 indeterminate specimens. All the specimens were tested by two RSTs (RST2 and RST4) and three ELISAs (ELISA1, ELISA3, and ELISA4), which were selected for their respective excellent sensitivity and/or specificity. Western blot (WB) was used as a gold standard for confirming the reactivity of all the specimens.
Sensitivity, specificity, and efficacy were calculated for each assay in two phases. In the first phase, four assays (ELISA4, RST2, RST3, and RST4) had a specificity of 100%. For the determination of efficacy, ELISA4, RST2, and RST4 were selected in the second phase. ELISA1 and ELISA3 which have a sensitivity of 95.9% and 93.2% respectively also entered this phase. In the second phase, all the five assays (ELISA1, ELISA3, ELISA4, RST2, and RST4) had a sensitivity and specifity of over 90%. ELISA1 had a sensitivity of 99% and ELISA4 a specificity of 99%.
The sensitivity ELISA1 and the specificit of ELISA4 are comparable to ELISA/WB standard strategy. Application of this alternative testing strategy provides a cost-effective method for determining HIV prevalence in Beijing.
No preview · Article · Sep 2007 · Biomedical and Environmental Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the subtype distribution and the prevalence of sequence characteristics of HIV-1 strains in Beijing residents during 2006 and to analyze the relationship between distribution of HIV-1 subtypes and transmission routines.
Blood samples from 32 new confirmed HIV-1 infected individuals from Beijing residents in 2006 and separated plasma specimens were collected. RNAs were extracted and the gag and env gene were amplified by RT-PCR and nest-PCR. PCR products were sequenced directly and phylogenetic analyses of gag and env gene were performed using the MEGA2 software.
Among 32 HIV-1 plasma samples, 22 gag and 4 env gene fragments were amplified and analyzed. Five HIV-1 subtypes or circulating recombinant forms(CRFs) of HIV-1 including Thai B (2 strains), B (9 strains), C (2 strains), CRF07_BC (5 strains), CRF01 AE (4 strains) were identified being circulated in Beijing. The gene divergences of gag gene inside the subtypes were 6.6%, 4.3%, 6.8%, 4.9% and 3.0% in subtype B, Thai B, C, CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC respectively. Subtypes B were predominant in Beijing, accounted for 40.9% among 22 samples.
Five HIV-1 subtypes were identified in Beijing and the surveillance of HIV-1 gene variation should be paid more attention to.
No preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although HIV-1 infection is prevalent in many regions in China, it remains largely unknown on the biological characteristics of dominant circulating isolates. This study was designed to isolate the circulating viral strains from different prevalent regions and to characterize their biological properties and neutralization sensitivity.
Primary viruses were isolated from fresh PBMCs using the traditional co-culture method and their capacity of inducing syncytium was tested in MT-2 cells. Meanwhile, their coreceptor usage was determined with two cell lines: Magi and GHOST (3) stably expressing CD4 and the chemokine receptor CCR5 or CXCR4. Furthermore, the sensitivity of these viruses to neutralization by HIV-1-infected patients' plasma which were highly active to neutralize SF33 strain, was quantified in GHOST cell-based neutralization assay.
Six primary viral strains were isolated from 4 separated regions. Isolates LTG0213, LTG0214 and XVS032691 induced syncytia in MT-2 cells, and used CXCR4 as coreceptor. Isolates XJN0021, XJN0091, or SHXDC0041 did not induce syncytia, and used CCR5 as coreceptor. Overall neutralization sensitivity differed among four representative strains: HIV-1 XVS032691 > LTG0214 >XJN0091 approximately SHXDC0041.
The neutralization sensitivity of HIV isolates is linked with the phenotype of isolates, in which syncytium-inducing (SI) or CXCR4-tropic (X4) viruses are more easily neutralized than non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) or CCR5-tropic (R5) viruses. The genetic subtypes based on the phylogeny of env sequences are not classical neutralization serotypes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the biological characteristics of the HIV-1 isolates circulating in China and to define the association of these properties with env V3 loop sequence variability.
Primary viruses were isolated from fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using the traditional co-culture method and their capacity of inducing syncytium was tested in MT-2 cells; meanwhile, their coreceptor usage was determined with GHOST-cell lines which stably express CD4 and the chemokine receptor CCR5 or CXCR4. Furthermore, HIV-1 V3 and its flanking region sequences were amplified by nest-polymerase chain reaction (nest-PCR) and sequenced. A GCG software was used to translate the DNA sequences into polypeptide sequences.
Five primary viral strains were isolated from 3 different regions in China. The isolates LTG0213 and LTG0214 induced syncytia in MT-2 cells and used CXCR4 as coreceptor. The isolates XJN0021, XJN0091, and SHXDC0041 did not induce syncytia and used CCR5 as coreceptor. There were obvious differences between X4/SI and R5/NSI viruses in env V3 loop sequences. A consensus motif at the positions 8, 11, 18, and 25 in V3 loop was identified as follows: a sequence as "8-TXXS/GXXXXXXR/QXXXXXXE/D-25" will predict the usage of CCR5 coreceptor; a sequence replacing these positions with basic amino acids (except position 25) will very likely predict the usage of CXCR4 coreceptor.
The biological characteristics of HIV isolates are linked to env V3 loop sequence variability: introducing basic amino acids (or translating from acidic amino acids into neutral amino acids) at the positions 8, 11, 18, and 25 in V3 loop will change viral strain's biological phenotype from NSI/CCR5 to SI/CXCR4. The biological phenotype of HIV-1 can be predicted with V3 loop sequence analysis.
No preview · Article · Jan 2005 · Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To characterize full length gag gene and partial pol gene of Chinese prevalent HIV-1 B/C recombinant strains, to explore the genetic difference between parent strains and B/C recombinant strains, and to investigate the mechanism of different biologic phenotype among them.
The peripheral blood samples were collected from 138 HIV-positive persons from 12 regions of China respectively. Samples of total DNA were extracted from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells to undergo nested PCR and sequencing. The 117 HIV-1 CRF07-BC strains and 21 HIV-1 CRF08-BC strains were screened with the resulted that 5 CRF07-BC samples from Xinjiang and 1 CRF08-BC sample from Chongqing were regarded as the most potential new type recombinant viruses. The sequences thus obtained underwent phylogenetic tree analysis and amino acid variation analysis. Simplot software was used to analyze the sequence recombination and identify the breakpoints of B/C recombinant strains. To confirm the breakpoints, separate phylogenetic analysis according to the breakpoints was performed with MEGA software. The genetic distances of different gene fragments were calculated by DISTANCE program in GCG software package. The gene dispersion in the gene fragment of a length of 2550 bp of the recombinant HIV-1-B/C and the potential influence of gene recombination on its function were further analyzed.
No change of breakpoint was found in the 5 samples from Xinjiang. But a breakpoint shift of 160 nucleotides occurred in RT region of a sample from Congqing city.
CRF07-BC and CRF08-BC remain the main prevalent HIV-1 B/C recombinant strains in China. No epidemic of new mosaic recombinant strain is found. The variation of amino acids at the sites 286 and 799 may be the reasons of the transmission dominance of the B/C recombinant strain.
No preview · Article · Apr 2004 · Zhonghua yi xue za zhi