[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this work was to evaluate the fate of APCs following interactions with T cells in unprimed mice with a normal T cell repertoire. We elaborated a model in which male adherent peritoneal mononuclear cells were injected into the foreleg footpads of naive female recipients mismatched for either minor or major histocompatibility Ags. At various times after injection, APC numbers in the draining (axillary and brachial) lymph nodes were assessed using a Ube1y gene-specific PCR assay. Our experimental model was designed so that the number of APCs expressing the priming epitope was similar to what is observed under real life conditions. Thus, early after injection, the frequency of afferent lymph-derived APCs expressing the priming epitope was in the range of 101-102/106 lymph node cells. We found that APCs presenting some, but not all, nonself epitopes were killed rapidly after entrance into the lymph nodes. Rapid elimination of APCs occurred following interactions with MHC class I-restricted, but not class II-restricted, T cells and was observed when APCs presented an immunodominant (B6dom1/H7a), but not a nondominant (HY), epitope. Killing of APCs was mediated partly, but not exclusively, by perforin-dependent process. We propose that killing of APCs by CTLs specific for immunodominant MHC class I-restricted epitopes may be instrumental in regulating the intensity, duration, and diversity of T cell responses.
Preview · Article · Jan 2000 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A controversy persists in autologous transplantation as to which source of progenitor cells, bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood (PB), contains the lowest number of contaminating lymphoma cells, and how mobilization procedures affect these numbers. To accurately measure the number of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) cells harboring the bcl-2/immunoglobulin H (IgH) rearrangement in progenitor cell grafts, we developed a nested quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction assay (QC-PCR). DNA from lymph nodes of four patients with NHL were cloned into the pSK(+) vectors to generate four internal controls (ICs) (two with major breakpoint region [MBR] and two with minor cluster region [mcr] rearrangements). The kinetics of amplification of ICs paralleled those of bcl-2/IgH rearranged genomic DNA. When used in a QC-PCR assay, these ICs were accurate at a 0.2-log level and provided reproducible results, as shown by low intrarun and interrun variability. An excellent correlation between predicted and observed lymphoma cell content (r = .99) was observed over a range of at least 5 logs of rearranged cells. This approach was used to measure involvement by NHL cells at the time of progenitor cell harvest in 37 autologous transplant patients. The number of bcl-2/IgH rearranged cells in BM, PB, and mobilized PB (mPB) was found to vary from 1 to 1.1 x 10(5) per million cells. The number of lymphoma cells present in BM was significantly higher than in PB (P = .0001), with a median difference in lymphoma cell content between BM and PB of 0.48 log of cells (range, -0.7 to 5 logs). In contrast, we found no difference in the concentration of bcl-2/IgH rearranged cells present in BM versus PB progenitor cells mobilized with cyclophosphamide and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (mPB) (P = .57). In conclusion, the QC-PCR assay described in this study could measure accurately and reproducibly the number of bcl-2/IgH rearranged cells among normal cells. Differences in levels of contamination by lymphoma cells between BM and PB were of less than one log (10-fold), and no differences in lymphoma cell concentrations were observed between BM and mobilized PB. As more cells are usually infused with mPB than with BM grafts, mPB progenitor cell grafts may actually be associated with higher levels of contamination by lymphoma cells. Furthermore, this QC-PCR assay should provide an important tool to assess the prognostic impact of lymphoma cell burden both in progenitor cell grafts and in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We found that (LP x C57BL/6)F1 mice could raise a CTL response against parental C57BL/6 cells. These CTLs recognized a maternally transmitted, H2-M3wt-restricted, minor histocompatibility Ag (MiHA) that is widely distributed among many strains of mice and encoded by the COI mitochondrial gene. The wild-type MiHA is the COI N-terminal hexapeptide. Sequencing the 5' end of the COI gene in LP and C57BL/6 mice showed that the LP allele arose by a T-->C transition in the third codon, which caused substitution of threonine for isoleucine. Molecular characterization of this MiHA and the demonstration that it is presented exclusively by H2-M3: 1) support the concept that differential expression of MiHA in MHC-identical animals is caused by polymorphism of the MiHA gene proper; 2) expand our knowledge of the repertoire of self-peptides naturally presented by H2-M3 and show that this MHC class I molecule can present short endogenous peptide ligands; and 3) suggest that mitochondrial DNA mutations that modify the repertoire of H2-M3-associated mitochondrial peptides are representative of mitochondrial DNA mutations in general.
No preview · Article · May 1996 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To understand how T cells respond to allogeneic minor histocompatibility Ags (MiHAs), we studied the fate of Thy-1.1+ lymphocytes, as well as their TCR usage and functional activity, in irradiated LP (Thy-1.2+) recipients transplanted with a mixture of C57BL/6 (Thy-1.2+) hemopoietic progenitors supplemented with either low or high numbers of B6.PL lymphocytes (Thy-1.1+). Mice transplanted with low numbers of T cells experienced a dramatic expansion (> or = 10(5)-fold) of donor Thy-1.1+/CD8+ cells during the first 15 days post-transplant. Flow-cytometric analysis and sequencing of junctional nucleotide sequences showed that the nature of this expansion was oligoclonal and involved primarily one or a few clones using V beta 5.1 or V beta 8.1 TCR elements. Expanded T lymphocyte populations displayed MHC-restricted cytotoxicity for a restricted number of MiHAs, that were found in only two peaks following fractionation of LP MiHAs by reverse-phase HPLC. Expansion of donor T cells was limited to the spleen, and short-lived in these recipients that became healthy long-term chimeras without any signs of graft-vs-host disease (GVHD). In contrast, mice transplanted with high numbers of T cells (GVHD+) showed proliferation of Thy-1.1+ donor cells not only in the spleen, but also in the thymus, and recipients died rapidly of GVHD. These results show that: 1) in the MiHA-incompatible transplantation setting, lack of GVHD cannot be explained simply by the absence of antihost T cell responses, 2) GVHD+ recipients present a massive thymic infiltration by donor mature T lymphocytes, and 3) antihost T cell responses are oligoclonal in nature and targeted to only a few MiHAs. These findings shed new light on the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in GVHD and on the selection of the T cell repertoire involved in response to immunodominant MiHAs.
No preview · Article · Jan 1996 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a highly sensitive technique for the detection of lymphoma cells presenting specific rearrangements or translocations, like the t(14;18). However, few methods are available for the quantitative evaluation of clinical samples, especially using nested PCR. In this study, we describe a method for the semiquantitative estimation of low numbers of lymphoma cells using the nested PCR methodology. Samples evaluated consisted of RL cells, a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cell line harbouring a bcl-2 translocation, mixed with normal mononuclear cells (MC) obtained from bone marrow or peripheral blood. DNA was extracted from samples with RL:MC ratios ranging from 5 x 10(-2) to 5 x 10(-7), and amplified for detection of this translocation. The product of this first amplification reaction was serially diluted 10-fold from 10(0) to 10(-7). Then each fraction was PCR-amplified with nested oligonucleotide primers. Aliquots of the second amplification were electrophoresed on a 2% agarose gel and stained with ethidium bromide. Within the range tested, there was a log-linear relationship between the number of PCR positive bands and the number of translocated cells in each sample. This procedure was highly reproducible in experiments evaluating the interrun and intrarun variability. In addition, there was no interaction with normal cells obtained from peripheral blood or bone marrow, or from different individuals. Furthermore, results were identical with two different cell lines and consistent with patient lymphoma cells obtained from a lymph node biopsy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
No preview · Article · Jan 1995 · Molecular and Cellular Probes