[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Air samples were collected in Izmir, Turkey at two (suburban and urban) sites during three sampling programs in 2002 and 2004 to determine the ambient concentrations of several monoaromatic, chlorinated and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Samples were analyzed for 60 VOCs using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and 28 compounds were detected in most samples. On the average, urban air VOC concentrations were about four times higher than those measured at the suburban site. Toluene (40.6%) was the most abundant compound in suburban site and was followed by benzene (7.4%), o,m-xylene (6.5%), and 1,2-dichloroethane (5.1%). In urban site, toluene (30.5%), p-xylene (14.9%), o,m-xylene (11.4%), and ethyl benzene (7.2%) were the dominating compounds in summer. In winter, toluene (31.1%), benzene (23.9%), 1,2-dichloroethane (9.5%), and o,m-xylene (8.2%) were the most abundant compounds. Receptor modeling (positive matrix factorization) has been performed to estimate the contribution of specific source types to ambient concentrations. Six source factors (gasoline vehicle exhaust, diesel vehicle exhaust+residential heating, paint production/application, degreasing, dry cleaning, and an undefined source) were extracted from the samples collected in the urban site. Three source factors (gasoline vehicle exhaust, diesel vehicle exhaust, and paint production/application) were identified for the suburban site.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2007 · Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Octanol–air partition coefficients (KOA) for 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined as a function of temperature using the gas chromatographic retention time method. log KOA values at 25° ranged over six orders of magnitude, between 6.34 (acenaphthylene) and 12.59 (dibenz[a,h]anthracene). The determined KOA values were within factor of 0.7 (dibenz[a,h]anthracene) to 15.1 (benz[a]anthracene) of values calculated as the ratio of octanol–water partition coefficient to dimensionless Henry's law constant. Supercooled liquid vapor pressures (PL) of 13 PAHs were also determined using the gas chromatographic retention time technique. Activity coefficients in octanol calculated using KOA and PL ranged between 3.2 and 6.2 indicating near-ideal solution behavior.Atmospheric concentrations measured in this study in Izmir, Turkey were used to investigate the partitioning of PAHs between particle and gas-phases. Experimental gas–particle partition coefficients (Kp) were compared to the predictions of KOA absorption and KSA (soot–air partition coefficient) models. Octanol-based absorptive partitioning model predicted lower partition coefficients especially for relatively volatile PAHs. Ratios of measured/modeled partition coefficients ranged between 1.1 and 15.5 (4.5±6.0, average±SD) for KOA model. KSA model predictions were relatively better and measured to modeled ratios ranged between 0.6 and 5.6 (2.3±2.7, average±SD).
Full-text · Article · Nov 2006 · Atmospheric Environment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Samples were collected between May 2003 and May 2004 in Izmir, Turkey to measure dry and wet deposition of formaldehyde (HCHO). Particle-phase HCHO fluxes measured with dry deposition plates ranged between 2 and 56 microg m(-2) day(-1) (average+/-SD, 17+/-12 microg m(-2) day(-1)). Particulate phase dry deposition velocities calculated using the particulate fluxes measured and ambient particulate concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 9.6 cm s(-1) (1.4+/-1.4 cm s(-1)). The particulate overall dry deposition velocity agreed well with those measured previously for other pollutants using the same method. Formaldehyde concentration measured in 27 rain samples collected at the sampling site ranged between 10 and 304 microg l(-1). The annual formaldehyde wet deposition was calculated as 31.4 mg m(-2) year(-1). The annual HCHO total deposition (wet+dry) was dominated by wet deposition (83.7%).
Full-text · Article · Sep 2006 · Science of The Total Environment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are a number of difficulties associated with the quantitative analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in atmospheric particles. Therefore, majority of the previous studies on VOCs associated with particles have been qualitative. Air samples were collected in Izmir, Turkey to determine ambient particle and gas phase concentrations of several aromatic, oxygenated and halogenated VOCs. Samples were quantitatively analyzed using thermal desorption–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Gas-phase concentrations ranged between 0.02 (bromoform) and 4.65 μg m−3 (toluene) and were similar to those previously measured at the same site. Particle-phase concentrations ranged from 1 (1,3-dichlorobenzene) to 933 pg m−3 (butanol). VOCs were mostly found in gas-phase (99.9±0.25%). However, the particulate VOCs had comparable concentrations to those reported previously for semivolatile organic compounds. The distribution of particle-phase VOCs between fine (dp<2.5 μm) and coarse (2.5 μm<dp<10 μm) fractions was also investigated. It was found that VOCs were mostly associated with fine particles.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2005 · Atmospheric Environment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty successive daytime and nighttime air samples were collected and analyzed for 23 currently used and/banned organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) between 14 and 23 May 2003 in Izmir, Turkey. Average individual OCP concentrations ranged from 5±4pgm−3 (p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane) to 391±306pgm−3 (chlorpyrifos) and they were within the ranges previously measured at different sites.Most of the OCPs did not exhibit strong diurnal cycling. The temperature dependence of gas-phase atmospheric concentrations of OCPs investigated using Clausius–Clapeyron plots was statistically significant for β-HCH and endosulfan sulfate (p
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Air samples were collected between September 2000 and September 2001 in Izmir, Turkey at three sampling sites located around a petrochemical complex and an oil refinery to measure ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations. VOC concentrations were 4-20-fold higher than those measured at a suburban site in Izmir, Turkey. Ethylene dichloride, a leaded gasoline additive used in petroleum refining and an intermediate product of the vinyl chloride process in the petrochemical complex, was the most abundant volatile organic compound, followed by ethyl alcohol and acetone. Evaluations based on wind direction clearly indicated that ambient VOC concentrations measured were affected by the refinery and petrochemical complex emissions. VOC concentrations showed seasonal variations at all sampling sites. Concentrations were highest in summer, followed by autumn, probably due to increased evaporation of VOCs from fugitive sources as a result of higher temperatures. VOC concentrations generally increased with temperature and wind speed. Temperature and wind speed together explained 1-60% of the variability in VOC concentrations. The variability in ambient VOC concentrations that could not be explained by temperature and wind speed can be attributed to the effect of other factors (i.e. wind direction, other VOC sources).
Full-text · Article · Sep 2003 · Science of The Total Environment