[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new method is described for the determination of orthophthalaldehyde in air which is used for the disinfection of various instruments (e.g. endoscopes) in hospital. Orthophthalaldehyde in air was collected with a silica gel cartridge impregnated with acidified 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH-cartridge) and derivatives were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In this study, the derivatization was examined by comparing the process with three phthalaldehyde isomers (ortho-, iso- and tere-). In the case of iso- and tere-phthalaldehyde, derivatives synthesized with excess of aldehyde consisted mainly of mono-derivatives, and derivatives synthesized with excess of DNPH consisted mainly of bis-derivative. In the case of orthophthalaldehyde, derivative consisted of only bis-derivative and mono-derivative was never observed under any conditions. Orthophthalaldehyde was completely retained by the DNPH-cartridge during air sampling, however, the derivatization reaction was incomplete and unreacted orthophthalaldehyde was flushed from the cartridge during the subsequent solvent extraction process. Unreacted orthophthalaldehyde and DNPH reacted again in the extraction solvent solution. Immediately after the solvent extraction, both mono- and bis-DNPhydrazone derivatives of orthophthalaldehyde were present in the solution. However, over time, the mono-derivative decreased and bis-derivative increased until only the bis-derivative was left allowing accurate determination of the orthophthalaldehyde concentration. The transformation of mono-derivative to bis-derivative was faster in polar aprotic solvents such as acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide and ethyl acetate. Transformation was found to occur most quickly in acetonitrile solvent and was completed in 4 h in this case. It was possible to measure orthophthalaldehyde in air as bis-derivative using a DNPH impregnated silica cartridge and HPLC analysis.
Preview · Article · Jun 2006 · Journal of Chromatography A
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 2C8 is one of the primary enzymes responsible for the metabolism of a wide range of drugs such as paclitaxel, cerivastatin, and amiodarone. We have sequenced the CYP2C8 gene from 201 Japanese subjects and found five novel nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): 511G>A (G171S), 556C>T (R186X; X represents the translational stop codon), 556C>G (R186G), 740A>G (K247R), and 1149G>T (K383N), with the allele frequency of 0.0025. The CYP2C8 variants were heterologously expressed in COS-1 cells and functionally characterized in terms of expression level, paclitaxel 6alpha-hydroxylase activity, and intracellular localization. The prematurely terminated R186X variant was undetectable by Western blotting and inactive toward paclitaxel 6alpha-hydroxylation. The G171S, K247R, and K383N variants exhibited properties similar to those of the wild-type CYP2C8. Paclitaxel 6alpha-hydroxylase activity of the R186G transfectant was only 10 to 20% that of wild-type CYP2C8. Furthermore, the R186G variant displayed a lower level of protein expression in comparison to the wild type, which was restored by the addition of a proteasome inhibitor (MG-132; Z-Leu-Leu-Leu-aldehyde). The reduced CO-difference spectral analysis using recombinant proteins from an insect cell/baculovirus system revealed that the R186G variant has a minor peak at 420 nm in addition to the characteristic Soret peak at 450 nm, suggesting the existence of improperly folded protein. These results indicate that the novel CYP2C8 SNPs, 556C>T (R186X) and 556C>G (R186G), could influence the metabolism of CYP2C8 substrates such as paclitaxel and cerivastatin.
Full-text · Article · May 2005 · Drug Metabolism and Disposition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Indoor air quality is currently a growing concern, mainly due to the incidence of sick building syndrome and building related illness. To better understand indoor air quality in Japan, both indoor and outdoor air samples were collected from 50 residences in Iwate, Yamanashi, Shiga, Hyogo, Kochi and Fukuoka Prefectures. More than 100 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method. The most abundant class of compounds present in the indoor air samples were identified (i.e. alkanes, alkylbenzenes and terpenes). For 30% of the indoor air samples, the sum of each VOC exceeded the current provisional guideline value for total VOC (TVOC, 400 microg/m3). The major component of these samples included linear and branched-chain alkanes (possibly derived from fossil fuels), 1,4-dichlorobenzene (a moth repellent), alpha-pinene (emission from woody building materials) and limonene (probably derived from aroma products). As an unexpected result, one residence was polluted with an extremely high concentration of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (720 microg/m3), suggesting accidental leakage from a household appliance such as a refrigerator. The results presented in this paper are important in establishing the Japanese target compound list for TVOC analysis, as well as defining the current status of indoor air quality in Japan.
Preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Kokuritsu Iyakuhin Shokuhin Eisei Kenkyūjo hōkoku = Bulletin of National Institute of Health Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new method for the simultaneous determination of aliphatic carboxylic acids and aldehydes in air is described. In this work, carboxylic acids were allowed to react with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) to form the corresponding carboxylic 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazides. These derivatives have excellent thermal stability, with melting points higher than those of the corresponding hydrazones by 32-50 degrees C. C1-C4 carboxylic acid 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazides exhibited maximum absorption wavelengths of 331-334 nm and molar absorption coefficients of 1.4 x 10(4) L/mol/cm. They were completely separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an RP-Amide C16 column. Cartridges packed with DNPH-coated silica particles (DNPH cartridge) were used for sampling formic acid and aldehydes. Formic acid was physically adsorbed on the silica particles as the first step of the sampling mechanism. Gradual reaction with DNPH followed. Formic acid reacted very slowly with DNPH at room temperature (20 degrees C), but reacted completely at 80 degrees C over 4 h. In field measurements, the sample air was drawn through a DNPH cartridge. After sampling, the cartridges were heated at 80 degrees C for 5 h and extracted with acetonitrile for HPLC analysis. Under these optimized conditions, the LOD is 0.4 ug/m(3) for an air sample collected for 24 h at 100 mL/min (144 L).
No preview · Article · Nov 2004 · Analytical Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aldehyde-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones exist as (E)- and (Z)-geometrical isomers, and adventitious isomerization during sample preparation can cause analytical errors. Purified alkenal-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives comprise only the (E)-isomer. However, partial isomerization to the (Z)-isomer occurs upon addition of acid to attain an equilibrium isomer ratio. The UV–visible spectral properties of the isomers differ; the (Z)-isomer exhibiting a 6–10 nm lower absorption maximum compared to the (E)-isomer. Alkenal-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones having a CC double bond at the 2- or 3-position of the alkenal exhibited similar absorption maxima with an equilibrium isomer ratio (0.035) that was much lower than those of other alkenals. The CC double bond at the 3-position migrates to a position of conjugation with the CN double bond during hydrazone synthesis to form a stabilized molecular structure. Alkenal-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones having a double bond at the 4-position or greater exhibited a similar absorption maxima equilibrium isomer ratio (0.14) to alkanal-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones. The quantitative analysis of carbonyl compounds in air or water using DNPH is usually conducted in the presence of an acid catalyst. Consequently, the solution of the direct extract prepared for HPLC or GC analysis contains both (E)- and (Z)-isomers.
No preview · Article · Oct 2004 · Analytica Chimica Acta
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. Cytochrome p450 (p450) 2E1 is a hepatic enzyme of importance for the metabolism of xenobiotics such as drugs and environmental toxicants. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1 in 5'-flanking and coding regions have been found previously in Caucasian and Chinese populations. 2. In order to investigate the effects of amino acid substitutions on the function of CYP2E1, the enzymes of all known CYP2E1 variants in the coding region (CYP2E1.2, CYP2E1.3 and CYP2E1.4) with Arg76His, Val389Ile and Val179Ile substitutions, respectively, as well as the wild-type CYP2E1 (CYP2E1.1) were expressed in COS-1 cells, and their chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation and 4-nitrophenol 2-hydroxylation activities were determined. 3. The protein level of CYP2E1.2 was reduced to 29% compared with that of CYP2E1.1. The profiles of the level of activity relative to CYP2E1.1 for chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation (300 microM substrate) and 4-nitrophenol 2-hydroxylation (150 microM substrate) were very similar. 4. Although the K(m) values were not significantly different among wild-type and variant CYP2E1s in any oxidation metabolism, the V(max) and V(max)/K(m) of CYP2E1.2 on the basis of the CYP2E1 protein level were 2.7-3.0-fold higher than those of CYP2E1.1. In contrast, the levels of CYP2E1 protein and catalytic activity of CYP2E1.3 and CYP2E1.4 were not affected by the corresponding amino acid substitutions. 5. The findings suggest that Arg76 is closely associated with the function of CYP2E1, and that the genetic polymorphism of CYP2E1 is one cause of interindividual differences in the toxicity of xenobiotics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 (P450) 2B6 is a hepatic enzyme of potential importance for the metabolism of clinically used drugs and environmental or abused toxicants. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2B6 (CYP2B6*2, CYP2B6*3, CYP2B6*4, CYP2B6*5, CYP2B6*6 and CYP2B6*7; wild-type, CYP2B6*1) were found previously in white and Japanese populations. In the present study, the goal was to investigate the effects of amino acid substitutions on CYP2B6 function. Wild-type (CYP2B6.1) and all of the known variants of CYP2B6 (CYP2B6.2, CYP2B6.3, CYP2B6.4, CYP2B6.5, CYP2B6.6, and CYP2B6.7) were transiently expressed in COS-1 cells, and their 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin O-deethylation activities were determined. The levels of the variant CYP2B6 proteins were relatively low compared with that of CYP2B6.1, although the differences were not significant. The activities of 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin O-deethylation on the basis of the CYP2B6 protein level at low (0.5 microM) and high (50 microM) substrate concentrations varied among wild-type and variant CYP2B6 proteins. All CYP2B6 enzymes showed typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The K(m) value of CYP2B6.6 was significantly higher than that of CYP2B6.1. Those CYP2B6 variants having a Lys262Arg substitution (CYP2B6.4, CYP2B6.6, and CYP2B6.7) showed increased values for V(max) and V(max)/K(m), whereas the kinetic parameters of CYP2B6.2 and CYP2B6.3 were not affected by the corresponding amino acid substitution. These results may mean that Lys262 in combination with other amino acid residues such as Gln172 and Arg487 is associated with the CYP2B6 function and that the genetic polymorphism of CYP2B6 leads to interindividual differences in xenobiotic metabolism.
Preview · Article · May 2003 · Drug Metabolism and Disposition