[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A fibrin/heparin-based delivery system was used to provide controlled delivery of platelet derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) in an animal model of intrasynovial flexor tendon repair. We hypothesized that PDGF-BB, administered in this manner, would stimulate cell proliferation and matrix remodeling, leading to improvements in the sutured tendon's functional and structural properties. Fifty-six flexor digitorum profundus tendons were injured and repaired in 28 dogs. Three groups were compared: (1) controlled delivery of PDGF-BB using a fibrin/heparin-based delivery system; (2) delivery system carrier control; and (3) repair- only control. The operated forelimbs were treated with controlled passive motion rehabilitation. The animals were euthanized at 7, 14, and 42 days, at which time the tendons were assessed using histologic (hyaluronic acid content, cellularity, and inflammation), biochemical (total DNA and reducible collagen crosslink levels), and biomechanical (gliding and tensile properties) assays. We found that cell activity (as determined by total DNA, collagen crosslink analyses, and hyaluronic acid content) was accelerated due to PDGF-BB at 14 days. Proximal interphalangeal joint rotation and tendon excursion (i.e., tendon gliding properties) were significantly higher for the PDGF-BB-treated tendons compared to the repair-alone tendons at 42 days. Improvements in tensile properties were not achieved, possibly due to suboptimal release kinetics or other factors. In conclusion, PDGF-BB treatment consistently improved the functional but not the structural properties of sutured intrasynovial tendons through 42 days following repair.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Journal of Orthopaedic Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous studies in a canine animal model demonstrated that the flexor tendon-to-bone insertion site has a poor capacity to heal. Magnesium-based adhesives have the potential to improve tendon-to-bone healing. Therefore, we hypothesized that magnesium-based bone adhesive (MBA) will improve the tendon-to-bone biomechanical properties initially and in the early period after repair.
Flexor digitorum profundus tendons were injured and repaired into bone tunnels in the distal phalanges of dogs. The bone tunnels were either filled with MBA before completing the repair or left empty (control [CTL]). Histologic appearance, tensile properties, range of motion, and bone density were examined at time zero and 21 days after the repair.
There was no histologic evidence of acute inflammation. There appeared to be more mast cells in the MBA group than in the CTL group. Chronic inflammatory infiltrate and fibrosis was slightly higher in the MBA group compared with the CTL group. Tensile properties at time zero were significantly higher in the MBA group compared with the CTL group. However, tensile properties were significantly lower in the MBA group compared with the CTL group at 21 days. Range of motion and bone density were significantly lower in the MBA and CTL groups compared with normal (ie, uninjured) at 21 days; no differences were seen when comparing MBA with CTL.
We found that the initial biomechanical properties of flexor tendon-to-bone repairs can be improved with MBA. However, MBA use in vivo led to a decrease in the biomechanical properties of the repair. There was no effect of MBA on bone density or range of motion in the early period after repair. Our histologic analysis suggests that the poor healing in the MBA group may have been due to an allergic response or to increased chronic inflammation resulting from the foreign material.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · The Journal of hand surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous tendon and ligament studies have demonstrated a role for mechanical loading in tissue homeostasis and healing. In uninjured musculoskeletal tissues, increased loading leads to an increase in mechanical properties, whereas decreased loading leads to a decrease in mechanical properties. The role of loading on healing tissues is less clear. We studied tendon-to-bone healing in a canine flexor tendon-to-bone injury and repair model. To examine the effect of muscle loading on tendon-to-bone healing, repaired tendons were either cut proximally (unloaded group) to remove all load from the distal phalanx repair site or left intact proximally (loaded group). All paws were casted postoperatively and subjected to daily passive motion rehabilitation. Specimens were tested to determine functional properties, biomechanical properties, repair-site gapping, and bone mineral density. Loading across the repair site led to improved functional and biomechanical properties (e.g., stiffness for the loaded group was 8.2 +/- 3.9 versus 5.1 +/- 2.5 N/mm for the unloaded group). Loading did not affect bone mineral density or gapping. The formation of a gap between the healing tendon and bone correlated with failure properties. Using a clinically relevant model of flexor tendon injury and repair, we found that muscle loading was beneficial to healing. Complete removal of load by proximal transection resulted in tendon-to-bone repairs with less range of motion and lower biomechanical properties compared to repairs in which the muscle-tendon-bone unit was left intact.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2008 · Journal of Orthopaedic Research