[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genotoxicity of commercial colloidal and laboratory-synthesized silica nanoparticles was tested using the single cell gel electrophoresis or Comet assay. By using a carefully developed protocol and careful characterization of the nanoparticle dispersions, Comet assays were performed on 3T3-L1 fibroblasts with 3, 6, and 24 h incubations and 4 or 40 microg/ml of silica nanoparticles. No significant genotoxicity was observed for the nanoparticles tested under the conditions described, and results were independently validated in two separate laboratories, showing that in vitro toxicity testing can be quantitatively reproducible.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although skin and respiratory sensitizing properties of platinum compounds have been proved in humans and mice, little is known about signal transduction pathways leading to cytokine production in the induction phase. It is generally assumed that induction of skin sensitization, but not skin irritation, is associated with a rapid increase in the IL-1beta mRNA expression. In this study, IL-1beta expression and a role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in this process were investigated in murine macrophages J774A.1 exposed to four platinum compounds. Potassium tetrachloroplatinate (K(2)PtCl(4); TCPP), ammonium tetrachloroplatinate ((NH(4))(2)PtCl(4); TCPA), ammonium hexachloroplatinate ((NH(4))(2)PtCl(6); HCPA) showed a very similar range of cytotoxic concentrations (IC(50) values: 238 microM+/-30; 269 microM+/-39 and 245 microM+/-31, respectively) as assessed in the 24-h MTT reduction test. Cytotoxicity of cis-diammineplatinum dichloride (cisplatin) was considerably higher (IC(50) of 23 microM+/-4). While increased expression of IL-1beta mRNA was observed in the macrophages exposed to each test compound, IL-1beta protein production was detected in cell lysates after treatment with TCPP, TCPA and HCPA for 24h (concentration range of 150-350 microM) as well as for 2h (450-650 microM). The treatment with each compound resulted in the phosphorylation of both p38 MAPK and ERK 1/2 (p44/42). Blocking the activation of p38 MAPK as well as ERK 1/2 with specific inhibitors (SB203580 and U0126, respectively) down-regulated the IL-1beta expression. Interestingly, the skin irritant sodium dodecyl sulfate did not trigger phosphorylation of these kinases, nor induced IL-1beta production. These data suggest that p38 MAPK and ERK 1/2 play an important role in induction of IL-1beta expression in J774A.1 macrophages exposed to test platinum compounds.
No preview · Article · May 2007 · Toxicology in Vitro
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Water pollution with toxic cyanobacterial blooms is a worldwide problem. Cyanobacteria species that mainly produce microcystins predominate in Polish water reservoirs.
In our study, cyanobacterial blooms were monitored during summer of 2004 in the Sulejów reservoir. The concentration of microcystins in water and cyanobacterial cells were determined using liquid chromatography and immunobiotests, while the biological activity of microcystic cyanobacterial extracts was assessed using bacterial tests (SOS Chromotest, UMU test), the comet assay and micronucleus test with human lymphocytes.
It was revealed that cyanobacterial bloom was most intensive in mid August and lasted until the end of September. Microcystis aeruginosa and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae dominated in the blooms. The highest concentration of microcystins in cyanobacterial cells was also observed at that time. The concentration of microcystins in water did not exceed 1 microg/l. All cyanobacterial extracts showed weak genotoxicity only for Escherichia coli PQ37. The cyanobacterial extracts prepared at the beginning of September were most toxic to human lymphocytes, the effective microcystin extracts (EC50) concentration was about two or three times lower compared to the other extracts. The level of DNA damage in lymphocytes after short exposure to microcystic extracts (3 and 6 h) was significantly higher than respective levels after longer exposure. The microcystins of cyanobacterial blooms induced a slight increase in micronuclei frequencies in human lymphocytes.
Phytoplankton biomass and the genotoxicity of massive cyanobacterial blooms should be assessed for eucariotic cells in the Sulejów reservoir to avoid the hazard induced by cyanobacterial blooms.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In C57Bl/6J mice chronically exposed to arsenate in drinking water at 50, 200, or 500 microg As/L, genotoxic effects in bone-marrow cells using micronucleus test and in peripheral blood leukocytes using the comet assay were determined after 3, 6 or 12 mo. To assess the modulating role of selenium in development of the effects, the animals were fed a specially prepared low-selenium diet and were supplemented with sodium selenite (200 microg Se/L) in drinking water (supplemented groups) or were without Se supplementation (nonsupplemented groups). Measurements of glutathione peroxidase activity in erythrocytes and plasma as well as selenium concentration in plasma were performed after 3, 6, and 12 mo and showed a marked decrease in values in animals in non-Se supplemented compared to Se-supplemented groups. After 3 mo of arsenic exposure in the Se-supplemented animals the level of DNA fragmentation (without Endo III and Fpg enzymes) did not differ from the control; however, increased oxidative damage of purine and pyrimidine bases was observed. In groups not supplemented with Se, an increase of DNA fragmentation was observed; however, the levels of oxidative DNA damage in these groups did not differ from the control. None of the positive effects observed in the comet assay after 3 mo was related to arsenate concentration. The levels of DNA damage after 6 and 12 mo of exposure to arsenic as well as the frequency of micronuclei after 3, 6, and 12 mo did not differ significantly between exposed and control animals, irrespective of Se supplementation status.
No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms of biological effects of 50/60 Hz (power frequency) magnetic fields (MF) are still poorly understood. There are a number of studies indicating that MF affect biochemical processes in which free radicals are involved, such as the biological objects' response to ultraviolet radiation (UVA). Therefore, the present study was aimed to assess the effect of 50 Hz MFs on the oxidative deterioration of DNA in rat lymphocytes irradiated in vitro by UVA. UVA radiation (150 J/m2) was applied for 5 min for all groups and 50 Hz MF (40 microT rms) exposure was applied for some of the groups for 5 or 60 min. The level of DNA damage was assessed using the alkaline comet assay, the fluorescence microscope, and image analysis. It has been found that the 1 h exposure to MF caused an evident increase in all parameters consistent with damaged DNA. This suggest that MF affects the radical pairs generated during the oxidative or enzymatic processes of DNA repair.
No preview · Article · Nov 2004 · Bioelectromagnetics