[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This single-institution long-term prospective study was performed in the setting of community service screening mammography to evaluate the association between the methods of breast cancer detection and survival rates.
From 1994 through 2001, data on 1237 patients with breast cancer were collected concurrent with definitive surgical treatment and entered into a comprehensive database.
Mammography was the sole method of detection for 517 (44%) of 1179 Tis-T2 breast cancers. Fifty-seven percent of invasive cancers detectable by mammography alone were less than 1 cm in diameter. For 1049 patients with invasive cancers, the 5-year overall observed survival rates were 94% for 372 whose cancers were detectable by mammogram alone and 87% for 677 whose cancers were detectable by palpation (alone or in combination with mammography) (P = .0002).
Most of the contribution to breast cancer mortality reduction is from the detection of small nonpalpable cancers, not from adjuvant therapy.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2006 · The American Journal of Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) has evolved as the standard of care in the surgical staging of breast cancer. This technique is accurate for surgical staging of axillary nodal disease. We hypothesized that axillary recurrence after SNB is rare and that SNB may provide regional control in patients with microscopic nodal involvement.
With institutional review board approval, SNB was performed with peritumoral injection of 99mTc-labeled sulfur colloid. From 1996 to 2003, 1167 patients were entered into a prospective cancer database after surgical therapy; 916 patients consented to long-term follow-up. Fifty-two patients (5.7%) did not map successfully and were excluded, leading to a study population of 864 patients. The median follow-up was 27.4 months (range, 1-98 months).
The median number of sentinel nodes harvested was 2, and 633 (73%) patients had negative sentinel nodes. Thirty (4.7%) of those sentinel node-negative patients underwent completion axillary dissection, whereas 592 (94%) patients were followed up with observation. A total of 231 (27%) had positive sentinel nodes: 158 (68%) of these patients underwent completion axillary dissection, and 73 (32%) were managed with observation alone. Two (.32%) patients who were sentinel node negative had an axillary recurrence; one of these patients had undergone completion axillary dissection. No patient in the observed sentinel node-positive group had an axillary recurrence (odds ratio, .37; P = .725).
On the basis of a median follow-up of 27.4 months, axillary recurrence after SNB is extraordinarily rare regardless of nodal involvement, thus indicating that this technique provides an accurate measure of axillary disease and may impart regional control for patients with node-positive disease.
No preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymphatic mapping with sentinel lymphadenectomy (SL) has become more widely used as an alternative to axillary dissection for the staging of breast cancer. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential associations of patient and tumor characteristics with the lymphatic mapping failure rate.
Between September 1996 and April 2003, 1,094 breast cancer patients participated in a single-institution prospective SL protocol, which was conducted using technetium 99 m sulfur colloid alone to identify sentinel lymph nodes. During the validation phase, consisting of the first 80 patients, all patients had SL followed by axillary dissection. Beginning with the 81st patient, the standard technique consisted of radiolabeled colloid injection in a peritumoral distribution 16 to 24 hours before the operation, followed by SL alone for node-negative patients.
Of 1,094 consecutive patients, 62 (5.7%) did not map. Patients having more than 10 involved lymph nodes had a significantly higher incidence of mapping failure (40.9%) than those who were node-negative (5.3%) (odds ratio = 9.19, p = 0.002). Age was a factor predictive of mapping failure for node-negative patients 70+ years of age (odds ratio = 3.14, p = 0.018). Biopsy technique, tumor size, tumor location, cell type, and surgeon experience were not predictors of mapping failure, regardless of node status.
The lymphatic mapping failure rate was associated with both anatomic and pathologic factors. Patients with extensive nodal involvement had a significantly greater chance of mapping failure. Among node-negative patients, those who were older were more likely to have mapping failure than those who were younger, suggesting that decreased breast density in postmenopausal women might provide an anatomic explanation for nonmapping.
No preview · Article · Jun 2004 · Journal of the American College of Surgeons
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of pancuronium in fast-track cardiac surgical patients may be associated with delays in clinical recovery. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the incidence and severity of residual neuromuscular blockade after cardiac surgery in patients randomized to receive either pancuronium (0.08-0.1 mg/kg) or rocuronium (0.6-0.8 mg/kg). Eighty-two patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass were randomized to a pancuronium (n = 41) or rocuronium (n = 41) group. Intraoperative and postoperative management was standardized. In the intensive care unit, train-of-four (TOF) ratios were measured each hour until weaning off ventilatory support was initiated. Neuromuscular blockade was not reversed. After tracheal extubation, patients were examined for signs and symptoms of residual paresis. When weaning of ventilatory support was initiated, significant neuromuscular blockade was present in the pancuronium subjects (TOF ratio: median, 0.14; range, 0.00-1.11) compared with the rocuronium subjects (TOF ratio: median, 0.99; range, 0.87-1.21) (P < 0.05). Patients in the rocuronium group were more likely to be free of signs and symptoms of residual paresis than patients in the pancuronium group. Our findings suggest that the use of longer-acting muscle relaxants in cardiac surgical patients is associated not only with impaired neuromuscular recovery, but also with signs and symptoms of residual muscle weakness in the early postoperative period. IMPLICATIONS: The use of long-acting muscle relaxants in fast-track cardiac surgical patients is associated with significant residual neuromuscular block in the intensive care unit, including signs and symptoms of residual paresis.
Full-text · Article · May 2003 · Anesthesia & Analgesia