E.A. Crecelius

University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, Washington, United States

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Publications (39)74.31 Total impact

  • E.A. Crecelius · L.F. Lefkovitz · V.I. Cullinan
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    ABSTRACT: Human activity in and around Puget Sound is reflected in the discharge of concentrated organic and inorganic contaminants into the sound's sediments. As industrial-age human activity increased, so did the contaminant levels in the sediment. Age-dated sediment cores collected in 1982 showed that the input of chemicals to the Sound, including lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), silver (Ag), copper (Cu), and hydrocarbons, began to increase above background in the late 1800s. The maximum concentration of these chemicals appears to have been discharged into sediments between 1945 and 1965. Synthetic organic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichlorethane (DDT), and chlorinated butadienes, first appeared in sediments deposited in the 1930s and reached a maximum in the 1960s. The presence of the subsurface maximum concentrations in fine-grained, deep-water sediments suggests that pollution-control strategies have improved the sediment quality of central Puget Sound
    No preview · Conference Paper · Feb 1999
  • L.F. Lefkovitz · V.I. Cullinan · E.A. Crecelius
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study is to: (1) continue monitoring historical trends in the concentration of contaminants in Puget Sound sediments, and (2) quantify recent trends in the recovery of contaminated sediments. Results from this study can be compared with those obtained in the 1982 study to determine whether sediment quality is still improving and to estimate the rate of recovery. A statistically significant reduction in sediment contamination over the past 20 years would provide empirical evidence that environmental regulation has had a positive impact on the water quality in Puget Sound. Chemical trends were evaluated from six age-dated sediment cores collected from the main basin of Puget Sound. Chemical analyses included metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PCBs and chlorinated pesticides, nutrients (total nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P)), butyl tins, and total organic carbon (TOC). Sedimentation (cm/yr) and deposition rates (g/sq cm/yr) were estimated using a steady-state Pb-210 dating technique.
    No preview · Article · Nov 1997
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    ABSTRACT: Most spilled oil congealed before stranding due to cold air and water temperatures. The area of the coast most affected consisted of unprotected, high-energy, sand beaches and rocky headlands, which self-cleanse rapidly. Clean-up was immediate and congealed oil was easily removed from affected beaches. -from Authors
    No preview · Article · Jan 1992
  • E.A. Crecelius · C.W. Apts · B.K. Lasorsa
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    ABSTRACT: A limited survey conducted in the summer of 1989 indicted that concentrations of seven metals(As, Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) in Norton Sound seawater are typical of coastal seawater. Of particular interest was Hg, which was determined to be in the range of 1 to 2 ng/L. Pacific Northwest Laboratory staff sampled seawater near Nome in June and September 1989. These seawater samples and sediment samples were analyzed for trace metals with the following objectives: to determine the concentrations of metals in surface and bottom water within 30 miles of Nome, to determine the concentrations of metals up-current and down-current of the BIMA gold dredge while the dredge was operating, to compare the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) total recoverable digestion technique for the analysis of metals in seawater with other analytical-chemical methods, and to determine the concentrations of metals in sediment elutriates. In a related issue, few data were available on the levels of mercury and arsenic in Nome residents through 1988. To fill this data need, samples of hair collected from Nome women of child-bearing age were analyzed to determine the concentrations of mercury and arsenic. 13 refs., 1 fig. 12 tabs.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1990
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    ABSTRACT: On December 23, 1988, the barge Nestucca was accidentally struck by its tow, a Souse Brothers Towing Company tug, releasing approximately 230,000 gallons of Bunker C fuel oil and fouling beaches from Grays Harbor north to Vancouver Island. Affected beaches in Washington included a 40-mile-long strip that has been recently added to Olympic National Park. The purpose of the monitoring program documented in this report was to determine the fate of spilled Bunker C fuel oil on selected Washington coastal beaches. We sought to determine (1) how much oil remained in intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats following clean-up and weathering, (2) to what extent intertidal and/or shallow subtidal biotic assemblages have been contaminated, and (3) how rapidly the oil has left the ecosystem. 45 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1990
  • T.J. Fortman · E.A. Crecelius
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    ABSTRACT: Not Available
    No preview · Conference Paper · Oct 1989
  • C W Apts · S.L. Kiesser · T.J. Fortman · O.A. Cotter · E.A. Crecelius
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    ABSTRACT: Not Available
    No preview · Conference Paper · Oct 1989
  • E.A. Crecelius · D.L. Woodruff · M.S. Myers
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    ABSTRACT: Not Available
    No preview · Conference Paper · Oct 1989
  • A. E. Nevissi · G. J. Shott · E. A. Crecelius
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    ABSTRACT: Marine sediment cores were collected in Puget Sound using a 7.6 cm diameter corer and a 15 15 cm square cross-section corer. The cores were dated by the 210Pb method and sedimentation rates and depth of sediment mixed layers were compared. The results show that both the sedimentation rates and the depth of sediment mixed layers obtained from small diameter corer are 2–3 times smaller than the corresponding values obtained from large cross-section corer. A cross-calibration of coring techniques seems necessary to correlate the sedimentation rates obtained using different devices.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1989 · Hydrobiologia
  • J T Hardy · E A Crecelius · C E Cowan · R S Wentsel
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    ABSTRACT: Studies were conducted to assess the fate and potential toxicity of brass powder deposited on water surfaces. Laboratory microcosms containing lake water were used to quantify the effects of surface dose, pH, alkalinity, microbiota, and sediment binding on the availability and subsequent toxicity of Cu and Zn from brass powder. Eight days after deposition on the water surface, high concentrations of Cu and Zn remained in the aquatic surface microlayer (upper 33 µm). The concentrations of total Cu and Zn in the subsurface bulkwater were reduced by the presence of bottom sediment but were little affected by biota. Toxicity of brass powder toDaphnia magna increased with increasing surface deposition (dose) and decreased with increasing water pH and alkalinity. Little or no toxicity occurred at brass powder surface doses of 50 and 1,000 mg/m2 for low- and high-alkalinity environments, respectively. Geochemical modeling suggested that toxicity resulted from concentrations of both Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions in solution.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1988 · Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
  • E.A. Jenne · E.A. Crecelius
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    ABSTRACT: A current approach to evaluating the potential toxicity of metal pollutants (MP) in sediments requires using methods for estimating sorbed metals, amorphic Fe oxide, Mn oxides, and reactive particulate organic carbon (RPOC). Methods for estimating these variables are reevaluated and extraction conditions optimized. The hydroxylamine hydrochloride method, used to estimate the quantities of sorbed metals and amorphic Fe oxide and oxidic Mn adsorbents, was found to yield excellent recovery of MP spikes added at the beginning of the extraction, and adequate precision and selectivity for amorphic over crystalline Fe oxides. Hot KOH was tentatively selected over NH/sub 4/OH for estimating RPOC because of its greater convenience; correlations with laboratory sorption experiments will be required to provide an adequate basis for selection. Determination of both sorbed metals and RPOC are relatively insensitive to solid-to-extractant ratio. Metal pollutants and RPOC extraction are also relatively insensitive to normality of HCl and KOH, respectively. 10 refs., 2 figs.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Sep 1988
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    ABSTRACT: From 1983 to 1985, Battelle/Marine Research Laboratory conducted reconnaissance-level field and laboratory studies to better characterize toxic contamination problems occurring in selected urban-industrialized bays (Bellingham Bay, Port Gardner - Everett Harbor, Fourmile Rock - Elliot Bay dump site vicinity, Sinclair Inlet) of Puget Sound. It was envisioned that this goal was best achieved by simultaneously determining levels of contamination in selected baseline or 'reference bays' (Samish Bay, Case Inlet, Dabob Bay, Sequim Bay). Two major tasks composed this effort. The first was conducted in 1983 and consisted of preliminary or screening surveys to collect and analyze sediment samples from 101 stations distributed in the four urban-industrialized bays (Figure 1), and at 80 stations distributed in the four baseline bays (Figure 2). The second task was undertaken in 1984 and involved detailed surveys and analyses of the same bays, but at a limited number of stations (32 in urban embayments, 16 in baseline bays). The stations to be resampled in 1984 were the ''cleanest'' of the clean and the ''dirtiest'' of the dirty as determined by the 1983 sediment chemical analyses, and within restrictions imposed by sediment type.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Feb 1988
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    ABSTRACT: Many aquatic contaminants, because of low water solubility (hydrophobicity) or association with floatable particles, concentrate at the sea surface. Thirty-six samples of the sea-surface microlayer (SMIC), the upper 50 μm, were collected from sites in Puget Sound, Washington State. Sites included three urban bays, central Puget Sound, and a rural reference site. Exposure of floating fish eggs to approximately half of these samples resulted in sublethal and lethal toxic effects (Hardy et al., 1987c).Chemical analyses revealed high concentrations of contaminants in many of the samples. Major temporal and spatial differences in sea-surface chemistry occurred, but maximum (for all) and mean (for 1985) concentrations were aromatic hydrocarbons, 8030 (mean 132) μg liter−1: saturate hydrocarbons, 2060 μg liter−1: pesticides, 43·8 (mean 0·46) ng liter−1; PCBs, 3890 (mean 631) ng liter−1; and total metals, 4750 (mean 626) μg liter−1. Stepwise multivariate regression indicated that the percentage of fish eggs developing to normal live larvae decreased with increasing concentrations of a complex mixture of contaminants. Principal component analysis demonstrated that the major types of contaminants did not differ greatly in their statistical contribution to the toxicity, i.e. no single chemical was responsible for the observed toxicity.The chemical composition of the SMIC samples suggested that contamination originated from a variety of sources including atmospheric deposition, terrestrial runoff of fossil fuel combustion products, and sewage disposal.
    No preview · Article · Dec 1987 · Marine Environmental Research
  • J.Q. Word · J.T. Hardy · E.A. Crecelius · S.L. Kiesser
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    ABSTRACT: Microcosm laboratory experiments assessed the impact of floatable materials and associated contaminants transported to the surface millilayer (SMIL) after sediments composed of potential dredged materials were disturbed. Urban bay sediments collected from the Everett Harbor, WA, and clean sediments from Sequim Bay, WA, were mechanically disturbed and the resulting floatable fractions transported to the SMIL during a 48-h period were removed for analysis. Sediment, water and SMIL concentrtaions oforganic carbon, suspended solids, a suite of hydrocarbons, metals, sulfides and extractale mtaerials were quantified and compared to EPA's water quality criteria. Bioassay experiments examined the effects produced by exposing sea urchin embryos to these impaired SMIL samples. Contaminants transported to the surface layer within 48h were 0% to 0·2% of the total mass of contaminants in the test sediments. These experimental results were compared with those predicted by a computer model with reasonably close agreement. Contaminant concentrations in one SMIL impacted by Everett Harbor sediments exceeded EPA water quality criteria limits established for Cu, Zn, Pb, Hg and PAH. The other Everett Harbor sediment sample exceeded the water quality standards for Cu and Pb. Both of these samples were toxic to the developmental phases of sea urchins as shown by the bioassay. According to the numerical model, these SMIL contaminant concentrations would require high dilution ratios before background concentrations could be achieved. The experimental results suggest that dredged material disposal may influence the chemistry and biology of the ocean's surface layer.
    No preview · Article · Dec 1987 · Marine Environmental Research
  • N.S. Bloom · E.A. Crecelius
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    ABSTRACT: Distributions of five of the more toxic heavy metals have been assessed for Puget Sound sediments. Twenty-one Kasten cores were collected for the study. Analysis by Zeeman-corrected graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy has made possible the accurate and precise determination of silver and cadmium in Puget Sound sediment cores for the first time. Data show that Puget Sound is moderately impacted by anthropogenic Ag, Hg, Pb and Cu. No enrichment of Cd was found. The study also indicates that Puget Sound is quite well mixed with respect to the residence time of particle-bound metals. Toxic metal accumulation sites in the central Sound are determined almost exclusively by grain size, rather than proximity to sources. Estimates are made of trace metal fluxes to the sediments as a function of sediment type and areal distribution.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1987 · Marine Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: We developed and evaluated state-of-the-art sampling, preservation, and analytical methods for the measurement of environmentally important species of mercury, using highly sensitive cold vapor atomic absorption techniques with preconcentration by gold amalgamation for the measurement of total mercury and elemental mercury forms, and very sensitive and selective gas chromatography coupled to microwave plasma emission spectrometry for individual alkyl and aryl mercury species. Samples from the Yakima River estuary at Richland, Washington, and from Hyco Reservoir, a cooling pond for a coal-fired power plant, contained extremely low concentrations of all forms of mercury in both water and sediments. Lake Onondaga had elevated total mercury concentrations in the sediments ranging from 307 to 1740 ng/g, although methyl mercury sediment concentrations were less than 0.8 ng/g. At all study sites, the ionic, elemental, and methyl mercury forms in the waters accounted for only a small fraction of the total dissolved mercury. The majority of the dissolved mercury in the water is bound organically, presumably in the form of fulvic and humic mercury complexes. This study resulted in an improvement in sensitivity by about a factor of ten over previous published techniques. Although the techniques provide adequate sensitivity for measuring background environmental concentrations of total mercury, ionic mercury, total dissolved organic mercury, and total volatile mercury, the background concentrations of alkyl mercury (mainly methyl mercury) remain very near or below detection limits. The sensitivity is adequate for regulatory purposes, but is only marginal for methyl mercury biogeochemical studies in low-mercury aquatic environments.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1987
  • J.T. Hardy · E.A. Crecelius · R. Kocan
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    ABSTRACT: The Marine Research Laboratory conducted studies during CY 1985 to evaluate the effects of sea-surface contamination on the reproductive success of a valued marine species. Microlayer and bulk water samples were collected from a rural bay, central Puget Sound, and three urban bays and analyzed for a number of metal and organic contaminants as well as for densities of neuston and plankton organisms. Fertilized neustonic eggs of sand sole (Psettichthys melanostictus) were exposed to the same microlayer samples during their first week of embryonic and larval development. Also, we evaluated the effects of microlayer extracts on the growth of trout cell cultures. Compared to rural sites, urban bays generally contained lower densities of neustonic flatfish eggs during the spawning season. Also, in contrast to the rural sites or the one central Puget Sound site, approximately half of the urban bay microlayer samples resulted in significant increases in embryo mortality (up to 100%), kyphosis (bent spine abnormalities) in hatched larvae, increased anaphase aberrations in developing embryos, and decreased trout cell growth. The toxic samples generally contained high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic and/or chlorinated hydrocarbons and/or potentially toxic metals. In some cases, concentrations of contaminants on the sea surface exceeded water-quality criteria by several orders of magnitude. Several samples of subsurface bulk water collected below highly contaminated surfaces showed no detectable contamination or toxicity.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1986
  • J.T. Hardy · C.W. Apts · E.A. Crecelius · N.S. Bloom
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    ABSTRACT: The sea-surface microlayer is an important interface between the atmosphere and ocean and a collection point for many anthropogenic materials including potentially toxic metals. We developed a glass plate sampler to collect the upper 30 to 55 micrometers of the sea surface. Samples of the microlayer and subsurface bulk water from an urban and rural bay were analysed for concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd and Fe. Metal concentrations in both the microlayer and bulk water were generally 2 to 15 times greater in the urban than in the rural bay. Concentrations of metals in the microlayer of both bays averaged 6 to 65 times greater than those in the bulk water. In the urban bay, microlayer concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cu from 10 to > 100 μg 1−1 were common. Measured microlayer metals concentrations agree well with those predicted from atmospheric deposition rates using a previously derived empirical model developed from laboratory microcosm studies. Further work will be required to determine whether or not these high microlayer metal concentrations contain significant biologically available fractions which could impact fisheries recruitment of larval icthyoneuston.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1985 · Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science
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    J. T. Hardy · C. W. Apts · E. A. Crecelius · G. W. Fellingham
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    ABSTRACT: Deposition of atmospheric particles provides a major source of metals to the world's oceans. Before entering the water column these metals must pass through the sea-surface microlayer (upper 50 ..mu..m), a boundary with unique physical, chemical, and biological properties. A model, derived from laboratory microcosm studies, is used to predict the behavior of six metals under two conditions of biotic enrichment and wind mixing and three atmospheric deposition rates. Mean residence times of metals in the microlayer are 1.5-15 h. Maximum predicted enrichments (microlayer/water metals concentrations) are Pb > Cu > Zn > Ag > Ni > Mn. These predicted enrichments agree well with mean microlayer metal enrichments measured in the field.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 1985 · Limnology and Oceanography
  • G. Roesijadi · E. A. Crecelius
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    ABSTRACT: Specimens of the hydrothermal vent clam Calyptogena magnifica were collected at a depth of 2 600 m from 21 N on the East Pacific Rise in spring, 1982. The elemental composition was determined for the total soft tissues, individual organs, and the shell. The soft parts contained high concentrations of a number of trace metals. Iron, copper, and zinc, at 760, 148 and 2 152 g g-1 dry weight, respectively, were present at the highest concentrations. Silver and antimony exhibited the greatest enrichments when their concentrations in C. magnifica were compared with those measured in a shallow-water marine mussel, Mytilus edulis. In contrast to the soft parts, the shell was not a site of metal accumulation or deposition. Within the soft parts; gills, kidney, pericardium, and mantle were involved in the concentration of various metals; the degree of concentration varied depending on the particular metal under consideration. C. magnifica possesses metal body burdens which are ordinarily considered to be very high and potentially toxic in other species.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1984 · Marine Biology