[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preventive care for adults with diabetes has improved substantially in recent decades. We examined trends in the incidence of diabetes-related complications in the United States from 1990 through 2010.
We used data from the National Health Interview Survey, the National Hospital Discharge Survey, the U.S. Renal Data System, and the U.S. National Vital Statistics System to compare the incidences of lower-extremity amputation, end-stage renal disease, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, and death from hyperglycemic crisis between 1990 and 2010, with age standardized to the U.S. population in the year 2000.
Rates of all five complications declined between 1990 and 2010, with the largest relative declines in acute myocardial infarction (-67.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -76.2 to -59.3) and death from hyperglycemic crisis (-64.4%; 95% CI, -68.0 to -60.9), followed by stroke and amputations, which each declined by approximately half (-52.7% and -51.4%, respectively); the smallest decline was in end-stage renal disease (-28.3%; 95% CI, -34.6 to -21.6). The greatest absolute decline was in the number of cases of acute myocardial infarction (95.6 fewer cases per 10,000 persons; 95% CI, 76.6 to 114.6), and the smallest absolute decline was in the number of deaths from hyperglycemic crisis (-2.7; 95% CI, -2.4 to -3.0). Rate reductions were larger among adults with diabetes than among adults without diabetes, leading to a reduction in the relative risk of complications associated with diabetes. When expressed as rates for the overall population, in which a change in prevalence also affects complication rates, there was a decline in rates of acute myocardial infarction and death from hyperglycemic crisis (2.7 and 0.1 fewer cases per 10,000, respectively) but not in rates of amputation, stroke, or end-stage renal disease.
Rates of diabetes-related complications have declined substantially in the past two decades, but a large burden of disease persists because of the continued increase in the prevalence of diabetes. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).
Preview · Article · Apr 2014 · New England Journal of Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE
Using a nationally representative sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. population, we estimated prediabetes prevalence and its changes during 1999-2010.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Data were from 19,182 nonpregnant individuals aged ≥12 years who participated in the 1999-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. We defined prediabetes as hemoglobin A1c 5.7 to <6.5% (39 to <48 mmol/mol, A1C5.7) or fasting plasma glucose (FPG) 100 to <126 mg/dL (impaired fasting glucose [IFG]). We estimated the prevalence of prediabetes, A1C5.7, and IFG for 1999-2002, 2003-2006, and 2007-2010. We calculated estimates age-standardized to the 2000 U.S. census population and used logistic regression to compute estimates adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, poverty-to-income ratio, and BMI. Participants with self-reported diabetes, A1C ≥6.5% (≥48 mmol/mol), or FPG ≥126 mg/dL were included.RESULTSAmong those aged ≥12 years, age-adjusted prediabetes prevalence increased from 27.4% (95% CI 25.1-29.7) in 1999-2002 to 34.1% (32.5-35.8) in 2007-2010. Among adults aged ≥18 years, the prevalence increased from 29.2% (26.8-31.8) to 36.2% (34.5-38.0). As single measures among individuals aged ≥12 years, A1C5.7 prevalence increased from 9.5% (8.4-10.8) to 17.8% (16.6-19.0), a relative increase of 87%, whereas IFG remained stable. These prevalence changes were similar among the total population, across subgroups, and after controlling for covariates.CONCLUSIONS
During 1999-2010, U.S. prediabetes prevalence increased because of increases in A1C5.7. Continuous monitoring of prediabetes is needed to identify, quantify, and characterize the population of high-risk individuals targeted for ongoing diabetes primary prevention efforts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The prevalence in the United States of dietary supplement use that may be harmful to those with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown. We sought to characterize potentially harmful supplement use by individual CKD status. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional national survey (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2008). SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Community-based survey of 21,169 nonpregnant noninstitutionalized US civilian adults (aged ≥20 years). PREDICTOR: CKD status (no CKD, at risk of CKD [presence of diabetes, hypertension, and/or cardiovascular disease], stages 1/2 [albuminuria only (albumin-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g)], or stages 3/4 [estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15-59 mL/min/1.73 m(2)]). OUTCOME: Self-reported use of dietary supplements containing any of 37 herbs the National Kidney Foundation identified as potentially harmful in the setting of CKD. MEASUREMENTS: Albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate assessed from urine and blood samples; demographics and comorbid conditions assessed by standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: An estimated 8.0% of US adults reported potentially harmful supplement use within the last 30 days. A lower crude estimated prevalence of potentially harmful supplement use was associated with higher CKD severity (no CKD, 8.5%; at risk, 8.0%; stages 1/2, 6.1%; and stages 3/4, 6.2%; P < 0.001). However, after adjustment for confounders, those with or at risk of CKD were as likely to use a potentially harmful supplement as those without CKD: at-risk OR, 0.93 (95% CI, 0.79-1.09); stages 1/2 OR, 0.83 (95% CI, 0.64-1.08); and stages 3/4 OR, 0.87 (95% CI, 0.63-1.18); all versus no CKD. LIMITATIONS: Herb content was not available and the list of potentially harmful supplements examined is unlikely to be exhaustive. CONCLUSIONS: The use of dietary supplements potentially harmful to people with CKD is common regardless of CKD status. Health care providers should discuss the use and potential risks of supplements with patients with and at risk of CKD.
No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · American Journal of Kidney Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With increasing life expectancy in the U.S., it is important to know whether a longer life expectancy means a longer healthy life span or a prolonged period of later-life morbidity. This study examines changes in lifetime without diabetes, a leading cause of morbidity in later life.
Using demographic methods and nationally representative data, we estimated changes in diabetes-free life expectancy between 1980-1989 and 2000-2004 for adult men and women in the U.S., estimated the contribution of changes in age-specific diabetes rates, and examined the changing effects of weight status on diabetes risks.
While life expectancy at age 18 for men and women increased between the 1980s and the 2000s, diabetes-free life expectancy at age 18 decreased by 1.7 years for men and 1.5 years for women. The proportion of 18-year-olds who would develop diabetes in their lifetimes increased by almost 50% among women and almost doubled among men. Obese individuals experienced the greatest losses in diabetes-free life expectancy during this period, estimated at 5.6 years for men and 2.5 years for women.
Diabetes-free life expectancy decreased for both men and women between 1980-1989 and 2000-2004, and these decreases are almost entirely attributable to large increases in diabetes incidence among obese individuals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sleep-related problems, which have been associated with poor health outcomes, have not been investigated thoroughly in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We examined the prevalence of a variety of sleep-related problems in persons with and without CKD.
National cross-sectional survey (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008).
Community-based survey of 9,110 noninstitutionalized US civilian residents 20 years or older.
CKD, defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 15-59 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (stages 3 and 4) or eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and albumin-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g (stages 1 and 2).
Sleep quality, defined using self-report in a multi-item sleep questionnaire including items from previously validated instruments.
Albuminuria and eGFR assessed from urine and blood samples; sleep, demographics, and comorbid conditions assessed using a standardized questionnaire.
Inadequate sleep (≤6 hours per night) differed by CKD severity (37.4%, 43.0%, and 30.9% for no CKD, CKD stages 1 and 2, and CKD stages 3 and 4, respectively; P = 0.003). Frequent sleeping pill use (8.4%, 9.9%, and 16.6%), leg symptoms (39.2%, 48.0%, and 50.9%), and nocturia (20.9%, 35.2%, and 43.6%; P < 0.001 for all) also differed by CKD severity. After adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, the prevalence of these sleep-related problems remained higher in people with CKD stages 1 and 2 relative to no CKD. Most other measures of sleep quality, disorder, and functional outcomes did not differ by CKD.
Inability to establish causality and possible unmeasured confounding.
Providers should be aware of early sleep-related CKD manifestations, including inadequate sleep, leg symptoms, and nocturia, and of the high rate of reported sleep medication use in this population.
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · American Journal of Kidney Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the prevalence of prediabetes using A1C, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) criteria, and to examine the degree of agreement between the measures.
We used the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys to classify 3,627 adults aged ≥ 18 years without diabetes according to their prediabetes status using A1C, FPG, and OGTT. We compared the prevalence of prediabetes according to different measures and used conditional probabilities to examine agreement between measures.
In 2005-2008, the crude prevalence of prediabetes in adults aged ≥ 18 years was 14.2% for A1C 5.7-6.4% (A1C5.7), 26.2% for FPG 100-125 mg/dL (IFG100), 7.0% for FPG 110-125 mg/dL (IFG110), and 13.7% for OGTT 140-199 mg/dL (IGT). Prediabetes prevalence varied by age, sex, and race/ethnicity, and there was considerable discordance between measures of prediabetes. Among those with IGT, 58.2, 23.4, and 32.3% had IFG100, IFG110, and A1C5.7, respectively, and 67.1% had the combination of either A1C5.7 or IFG100.
The prevalence of prediabetes varied by the indicator used to measure risk; there was considerable discordance between indicators and the characteristics of individuals with prediabetes. Programs to prevent diabetes may need to consider issues of equity, resources, need, and efficiency in targeting their efforts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate the percent and number of overweight adults in the U.S. with prediabetes who would be potential candidates for diabetes prevention as per the American Diabetes Association Position Statement (12).
We analyzed data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III; 1988-1994) and projected our estimates to the year 2000. We defined impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; 2-h glucose 140-199 mg/dl), impaired fasting glucose (IFG; fasting glucose 110-125 mg/dl), and prediabetes (IGT or IFG) per American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. The ADA recently recommended that all overweight people (BMI >or=25 kg/m(2)) who are >or=45 years of age with prediabetes could be potential candidates for diabetes prevention, as could prediabetic people aged >25 years with risk factors. In NHANES III, 2-h postload glucose concentrations were done only among subjects aged 40-74 years. Because we were interested in overweight people who had both the 2-h glucose and fasting glucose tests, we limited our estimates of IGT, IFG, and prediabetes to those aged 45-74 years. RESULTS-Overall, 17.1% of overweight adults aged 45-74 years had IGT, 11.9% had IFG, 22.6% had prediabetes, and 5.6% had both IGT and IFG. Based on those data, we estimated that in the year 2000, 9.1 million overweight adults aged 45-74 had IGT, 5.8 million had IFG, 11.9 million had prediabetes, and 3.0 million had IGT and IFG.
Almost 12 million overweight individuals aged 45-74 years in the U.S. may benefit from diabetes prevention interventions. The number will be substantially higher if estimation is extended to individuals aged >75 and 25-44 years.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the distribution of HbA(1c) levels among children and young adults in the U.S. and to evaluate the effects of age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, parental history of diabetes, overweight, and serum glucose on HbA(1c) levels.
We analyzed HbA(1c) data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994, for 7,968 participants aged 5-24 years who had not been treated for diabetes. After adjusting for the complex sample design, we compared the distributions of HbA(1c) in subgroups and developed multiple linear regression models to examine factors associated with HbA(1c).
Mean HbA(1c) level was 4.99% (SD 0.50%) and varied from 4.93% (95% CI +/-0.04) in non-Hispanic whites to 5.05% (+/-0.02) in Mexican-Americans to 5.17% (+/-0.02) in non-Hispanic blacks. There were very small differences among subgroups. Within each age- group, among men and women, among overweight and nonoverweight subjects, and at any level of education, mean HbA(1c) levels were higher in non-Hispanic blacks than in non-Hispanic whites. After adjusting for confounders, HbA(1c) levels for non-Hispanic blacks (5.15%, 95% CI +/-0.04) and Mexican-Americans (5.01%, +/-0.04) were higher than those for non-Hispanic whites (4.93%, +/-0.04).
These data provide national reference levels for HbA(1c) distributions among Americans aged 5-24 years and show statistically significant racial/ethnic differences in HbA(1c) levels that are not completely explained by demographic and health-related variables.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent guidelines and clinical trial results emphasize the importance of controlling blood pressure among people with diabetes. We estimated the prevalence of elevated blood pressure among U.S. adults with diagnosed diabetes, and examined the extent to which elevated blood pressure is being treated and controlled.
The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), a probability survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the United States, consisted of an interview and physical examination, which included blood pressure measurement. Survey participants included 1507 adults (aged > or = 18 years) with self-reported diabetes. Among people with self-reported diabetes, we estimated elevated blood pressure (mean blood pressure of > or = 130/85 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medication); awareness (prior diagnosis of hypertension); treatment (antihypertensive medication use); and control (mean blood pressure of <130/85 or <140/90).
In the 1988-1994 period, 71% (95% confidence interval [CI]=+/-4.4%) of all U.S. adults with diabetes had elevated blood pressure. The prevalence of elevated blood pressure increased with age and was high among both men and women and among Mexican Americans, non-Hispanic blacks, and non-Hispanic whites. Among those with elevated blood pressure, 71% (95% CI=+/-4.1%) were aware and 57% (95% CI=+/-4.2%) were treated, but only 12% (95% CI=+/-3.2%) had mean blood pressure <130/85 and 45% (95% CI=+/-4.9%) had mean blood pressure <140/90. Control of blood pressure was least common among older people.
All people with diabetes-regardless of age, gender, and race and ethnicity-may benefit from efforts to prevent hypertension. The control of elevated blood pressure is inadequate and broad-based efforts are needed to improve blood pressure control.
Preview · Article · Jan 2002 · American Journal of Preventive Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the performance, in settings typical of opportunistic and community screening programs, of screening tests currently recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) for detecting undiagnosed diabetes.
Volunteers aged > or =20 years without previously diagnosed diabetes (n = 1,471) completed a brief questionnaire and underwent recording of postprandial time and measurement of capillary blood glucose (CBG) with a portable sensor. Participants subsequently underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test; fasting serum glucose (FSG) and 2-h postload serum glucose (2-h SG) concentrations were measured. The screening tests we studied included the ADA risk assessment questionnaire, the recommended CBG cut point of 140 mg/dl, and an alternative CBG cut point of 120 mg/dl. Each screening test was evaluated against several diagnostic criteria for diabetes (FSG > or =126 mg/dl, 2-h SG > or =200 mg/dl, or either) and dysglycemia (FSG > or =110 mg/dl, 2-h SG > or =140 mg/dl, or either).
Among all participants, 10.7% had undiagnosed diabetes (FSG > or =126 or 2-h SG > or =200 mg/dl), 52.1% had a positive result on the questionnaire, 9.5% had CBG > or =140 mg/dl, and 18.4% had CBG > or =120 mg/dl. The questionnaire was 72-78% sensitive and 50-51% specific for the three diabetes diagnostic criteria; CBG > or =140 mg/dl was 56-65% sensitive and 95-96% specific, and CBG > or =120 mg/dl was 75-84% sensitive and 86-90% specific. CBG > or =120 mg/dl was 44-62% sensitive and 89-90% specific for dysglycemia.
Low specificity may limit the usefulness of the ADA questionnaire. Lowering the cut point for a casual CBG test (e.g., to 120 mg/dl) may improve sensitivity and still provide adequate specificity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hypothesis of "no difference" between two populations is the appropriate null hypothesis in studies intended to show that populations differ. In studies intended to show that two populations are practically equivalent, the null hypothesis that a substantial difference between the populations exists is more appropriate. We consider eight tests of the null hypothesis that the absolute difference of two binomial random variables' success probabilities is at least a prespecified Δ > 0 versus the alternative that the difference is less than Δ. The tests considered are: six forms of the two one-sided test, a modified form of the Patel-Gupta test, and the likelihood ratio rest. The applicability of each test in a given setting depends on how well the test maintains its nominal size, the power of the test, and the ease with which it is implemented. Based on these criteria, we make recommendations for choosing among these tests.
No preview · Article · Nov 2001 · The American Statistician
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since 1997, the American Diabetes Association has recommended that aspirin therapy be considered for adults with diabetes who have cardiovascular disease (CVD) or CVD risk factors. We examined the prevalence of regular aspirin use among adults in the U.S. with diagnosed diabetes.
The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) used a probability sample of the U.S. population and included an interview, physical examination, and laboratory studies. Among the survey participants were 1,503 adults (age > or =21 years) with self-reported diabetes. We defined regular aspirin use as reported having taken aspirin > or = 15 times in the previous month. CVD conditions were self-reported heart attack and stroke and symptoms of angina and claudication. CVD risk factors included smoking, hypertension, obesity, albuminuria, lipid abnormalities, and family history of heart attack.
An estimated 27% of adults with diabetes had CVD, and an additional 71% had one or more CVD risk factors. Aspirin was used regularly by 37% of those with CVD and by 13% of those with risk factors only Adjusted odds of regular aspirin use were significantly greater for individuals with CVD than for those with one CVD risk factor (odds ratio [OR] = 4.3); for non-Hispanic whites than for blacks, Mexican-Americans, and others (OR = 2.5); and for individuals age 40-59 years than for those <40 years (OR = 33.3).
Nearly every adult in the U.S. with diabetes has at least one risk factor for CVD and thus may be considered a potential candidate for aspirin therapy. During 1988-1994, only 20% (95% CI 16-23) took aspirin regularly Major efforts are needed to increase aspirin use.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assist the Central African Republic (CAR) develop national guidelines for treating children with pneumonia, a survey was conducted to determine antimicrobial resistance rates of nasopharyngeal isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) and Haemophilus influenzae (HI). Secondary purposes of the survey were to identify risk factors associated with carriage of a resistant isolate and to compare the survey methods of including only children with pneumonia vs. including all ill children.
A cross-sectional survey of 371 ill children was conducted at 2 outpatient clinics in Bangui, CAR.
In all 272 SP isolates and 73 HI isolates were cultured. SP resistance rates to penicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), tetracycline and chloramphenicol were 8.8, 6.3, 42.3 and 9.2%, respectively. All penicillin-resistant SP isolates were intermediately resistant. HI resistance rates to ampicillin, TMP-SMX and chloramphenicol were 1.4, 12.3 and 0%, respectively. The most common SP serotypes/groups were 19, 14, 6 and 1; 49% of HI isolates were type b. History of antimicrobial use in the previous 7 days was the only factor associated with carriage of a resistant isolate. Resistance rates were similar among ill children regardless of whether they had pneumonia.
Resistance rates were low for antimicrobials recommended by the World Health Organization for children with pneumonia. We recommended TMP-SMX as the first line treatment for pneumonia in CAR because of its low cost, ease of dosing and activity against malaria.
No preview · Article · Jun 2000 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The long-term effect of type 2 diabetes on cognitive function is uncertain.
To determine whether older women with diabetes have an increased risk of cognitive impairment and cognitive decline.
Prospective cohort study.
Four research centers in the United States (Baltimore, Md; Portland, Ore; Minneapolis, Minn; and the Monongahela Valley, Pennsylvania).
Community-dwelling white women 65 years and older (n = 9679).
Physician-diagnosed diabetes and other aspects of health history were assessed by interview. Three tests of cognitive function, the Digit Symbol test, the Trails B test, and a modified version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (m-MMSE), were administered at baseline and 3 to 6 years later. Change in cognitive function was defined by the change in the score for each test. Major cognitive decline was defined as the worst 10th percentile change in the score for each test.
Women with diabetes (n = 682 [7.0%]) had lower baseline scores than those without diabetes on all 3 tests of cognitive function (Digit Symbol and Trials B tests, P<.01; m-MMSE, P = .03) and experienced an accelerated cognitive decline as measured by the Digit Symbol test (P<.01) and m-MMSE (P = .03). Diabetes was also associated with increased odds of major cognitive decline as determined by scores on the Digit Symbol (odds ratio = 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-2.23) and Trails B (odds ratio, 1.74; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-2.39) tests when controlled for age, education, depression, stroke, visual impairment, heart disease, hypertension, physical activity, estrogen use, and smoking. Women who had diabetes for more than 15 years had a 57% to 114% greater risk of major cognitive decline than women without diabetes.
Diabetes is associated with lower levels of cognitive function and greater cognitive decline among older women.
No preview · Article · Feb 2000 · Archives of Internal Medicine