[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complex superficial lipid layer of the tear film functions to prevent evaporation and maintain tear stability. Although classes of lipids found in the tear film have been reported, individual lipid species are currently being studied with more sophisticated.
The purpose of this work was to show the identification of fatty acids and the fatty acid amides in human meibomian gland secretions by using electrospray mass spectrometry. methods. Human meibomian gland secretions (meibum) were analyzed by electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (positive- and negative-ion mode). Accurate mass determination and collision-induced dissociation of meibum, and lipid standards were used to identify lipid species.
Mass analysis of meibum in an acidic chloroform-methanol solution in positive-ion mode revealed a mass peak of m/z 282.3, which was identified as the protonated molecule of oleamide [C(18)H(35)NO+H](+). The high-resolution mass analysis of the m/z 282.2788 peak (oleamide) demonstrated a mass accuracy of 3.2 parts per million (ppm). Collision-induced dissociation of this species from meibum, compared with an oleamide standard, confirmed its identification. Myristic, palmitic, stearic, and oleic free fatty acids were identified in a similar manner, as were the other fatty acid amides (myristamide, palmitamide, stearamide, and erucamide).
The findings indicate that oleamide (cis-9-octadecenamide), an endogenous fatty acid primary amide, is a predominant component of meibum when examined by electrospray mass spectrometry. The novel finding of oleamide and other members of the fatty acid amide family in the tear film could lead to additional insights into the role of fatty acid amide activity in human biological systems and may indicate a new function for this lipid class of molecules in ocular surface signaling and/or in the maintenance of the complex tear film.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare self-reported dry eye disease across contact lens wearers, spectacles wearers, and clinical emmetropes (i.e., those not requiring refractive correction).
The survey included two symptom questions (dryness and light sensitivity) that inquired about frequency and intensity at three times of day (morning, afternoon, and evening) and a self-perception question (i.e., Do you think you have dry eyes?). Dryness and light sensitivity scales were then calculated, summed, and scored, providing a dry eye classification. Logistic regression (binary and multinomial) and analysis of covariance were used to examine the relation between mode of refractive correction and dry eye status, frequency of symptoms, and diurnal change in symptom intensity.
Overall, 893 surveys were completed, and the age-adjusted frequency of dry eye in the sample was 28.7%, with 3.5% of the sample reporting severe symptoms (at least grade 4 of a possible 5 for both symptoms). Contact lens wearers were most likely to report dry eye disease (52.3%), followed by spectacle wearers (23.9%) and clinical emmetropes (7.1%). Adjustment for age and gender showed that contact lens (adjusted odds ratio = 12.37, 95% confidence interval = 7.55-20.26) and spectacle wearers (adjusted odds ratio = 2.06, 95% confidence interval = 1.12-3.80) were more likely than emmetropes to report dry eye problems. After adjustment for age and gender, contact lens wearers were shown to be more likely to experience frequent symptoms and an increase in symptoms throughout the day (F = 51.4, P < 0.0001).
The frequency of self-reported dry eye is high, especially in contact lens wearers.