[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
To determine the frequency of tracheal pepsin in ventilated neonates and whether the angle of head elevation was associated with tracheal pepsin.
Serial trachael samples (at 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of ventilation) were obtained from intubated, ventilated very low birth weight infants. Presence of tracheal pepsin was determined by Western blot analysis using a specific anti-human pepsin antibody.
Tracheal pepsin was detected in 35/66 (53%) of the ventilated neonates (birthweight: 798 ± 268 grams [mean ± standard deviation]). Neonates whose head elevation was in the upper quartile (≥14 degrees) during the first sampling time (day 3) were less likely (4/16 vs 9/10, P = 0.0013) to have tracheal pepsin when compared to neonates whose head elevation was in the lowest quartile (≤8 degrees).
Pepsin, a marker for gastric secretion aspiration, was detected in 53% of ventilated low birth weight neonates; early elevation of the head of the bed was associated with a lower rate of tracheal pepsin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this pilot trial was to determine whether rates of contact dermatitis following cutaneous antisepsis for central catheter placement were similar among neonates treated with chlorhexidine gluconate and povidone-iodine. Chlorhexidine gluconate absorption was also evaluated.
Infants weighing > or =1500 g and > or =7 days of age were randomized to a 10% povidone-iodine or 2% chlorhexidine gluconate site scrub before catheter placement. Primary outcomes evaluated included dermatitis, catheter colonization and chlorhexidine gluconate absorption.
A total of 48 neonates were enrolled. Colonization rates were similar among treatment groups (P<0.6). Dermatitis did not occur at chlorhexidine gluconate (central catheters, n=24; peripheral catheters, n=29) sites. Seven neonates had measurable chlorhexidine gluconate concentrations (range 13 to 100 ng ml(-1)) during catheterization.
In this small trial chlorhexidine gluconate antisepsis was tolerated by study neonates. Chlorhexidine gluconate was cutaneously absorbed. Larger trials are needed to determine efficacy and tolerance of chlorhexidine gluconate in neonates.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Journal of perinatology: official journal of the California Perinatal Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To better define the pathogenesis of catheter-related bloodstream infection (BSI) in neonates with peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) to guide the development of more effective strategies for prevention.
Prospective nested cohort study.
Level III neonatal intensive care unit in a community hospital.
During a randomized trial to assess the safety and efficacy of a prophylactic vancomycin-heparin catheter-lock solution for the prevention of catheter-related BSI in neonates with PICCs, we performed cultures of peripheral and catheter-drawn blood samples, and quantitative cultures of catheter hub samples if BSI was suspected clinically. We performed semiquantitative cultures of the catheter tip and the catheter hub and the skin at the insertion site when the catheter was removed. Molecular subtyping by pulsed-field electrophoresis was used to determine the probable pathogenesis of all BSIs due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS); for BSIs caused by other microorganisms, epidemiologic concordance was based on speciation and antibiograms. Catheter-related BSI was considered extraluminally acquired if concordance was demonstrable solely between isolates recovered from the catheter tip and the blood, independent of concordance with isolates recovered from the insertion site. Catheter-related BSI was considered intraluminally acquired if concordance was demonstrated only between isolates recovered from the catheter hub and the blood. The source of the infection was considered indeterminate if both concordance patterns were present.
Nosocomial BSI was identified in 23 of the 82 neonates in the cohort. Fifteen of these infections, 14 of which were caused by CoNS, were considered definite or probable catheter-related BSIs. Catheter-related BSI was intraluminally acquired in 10 (67%) of 15 patients, extraluminally acquired in 3 (20%), and indeterminate in 2 (13%).
Most catheter-related BSIs in neonates with PICCs are caused by CoNS and derive from intraluminal contamination. Strategies for prevention of catheter-related BSI directed at this predominant mechanism of infection are most likely to be effective.
Preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Critically ill neonates are at high risk for vascular catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI), most often caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci. Most CRBSIs with long-term devices derive from intraluminal contaminants. The objective of this study was to ascertain the safety and the efficacy of a vancomycin-heparin lock solution for prevention of CRBSI.
A prospective, randomized double-blind trial was conducted during 2000-2001 at a community hospital level III NICU. Very low birth weight and other critically ill neonates with a newly placed peripherally inserted central venous catheter were randomized to have the catheter locked 2 or 3 times daily for 20 or 60 minutes with heparinized normal saline (n = 43) or heparinized saline that contained vancomycin 25 microg/mL (n = 42). The origin of each nosocomial bloodstream infection (BSI) was studied by culturing skin, catheter hubs, and implanted catheter segments and blood cultures, demonstrating concordance by restriction-fragment DNA subtyping. Surveillance axillary and rectal cultures were performed to detect colonization by vancomycin-resistant organisms. The main outcome measures were (1) CRBSIs and (2) colonization or infection by vancomycin-resistant Gram-positive bacteria.
Two (5%) of 42 infants in the vancomycin-lock group developed a CRBSI as compared with 13 (30%) of 43 in the control group (2.3 vs 17.8 per 1000 catheter days; relative risk: 0.13; 95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.57). No vancomycin-resistant enterococci or staphylococci were recovered from any cultures. Vancomycin could not be detected in the blood of infants who did not receive systemic vancomycin therapy. Twenty-six neonates (8 vancomycin-lock group, 18 control group) had at the end of a catheter-lock period asymptomatic hypoglycemia that resolved promptly when glucose-containing intravenous fluids were restarted.
Prophylactic use of a vancomycin-heparin lock solution markedly reduced the incidence of CRBSI in high-risk neonates with long-term central catheters and did not promote vancomycin resistance but was associated with asymptomatic hypoglycemia. The use of an anti-infective lock solution for prevention of CRBSI with long-term intravascular devices has achieved proof of principle and warrants selective application in clinical practice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neonates who require a central venous catheter (CVC) for prolonged vascular access experience high rates of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI).
PURPOSE: A multicenter randomized clinical trial was undertaken to ascertain the efficacy of a novel chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing (Biopatch Antimicrobial Dressing) on the CVC sites of neonates for the prevention of catheter tip colonization, CRBSI, and bloodstream infection (BSI) without a source. Setting. Six level III neonatal intensive care units. Patients Studied. Neonates admitted to study units who would require a CVC for at least 48 hours.
METHODS: Eligible infants were randomized before catheter placement to 1 of the 2 catheter site antisepsis regimens: 1) 10% povidone-iodine (PI) skin scrub, or 2) a 70% alcohol scrub followed by placement of a chlorhexidine-impregnated disk over the catheter insertion site. A transparent polyurethane dressing (Bioclusive Transparent Dressing) was used to cover the insertion site in both study groups. Primary study outcomes evaluated were catheter tip colonization, CRBSI, and BSI without an identified source.
RESULTS: Seven hundred five neonates were enrolled in the trial, 335 randomized to receive the chlorhexidine dressing and 370 to skin disinfection with PI (controls). Neonates randomized to the antimicrobial dressing group were less likely to have colonized CVC tips than control neonates (15.0% vs 24.0%, relative risk [RR]: 0.6 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5-0.9). Rates of CRBSI (3.8% vs 3.2%, RR: 1.2, CI: 0.5-2.7) and BSI without a source (15.2% vs 14.3%, RR: 1.1, CI: 0.8-1.5) did not differ between the 2 groups. Localized contact dermatitis from the antimicrobial dressing, requiring crossover into the PI treatment group, occurred in 15 (15.3%) of 98 exposed neonates weighing
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the effect of prenatal and postnatal glucocorticoids use on serum leptin and weight gain in sick preterm infants and its correlation with caloric intake.
Serum leptin was measured in 24 neonates at day 1 (cord), 14 and 28 by radioimmunoassay. Total caloric intake (enteral and parenteral) and weight were measured on days 14 and 28 of life.
Mean birth weight and gestational age of study infants were 864 +/- 273 g (mean +/- SD) (range 520-1755 g), and 26.6 +/- 2.4 weeks (23-32 weeks) respectively. Cord blood leptin was greater in infants whose mothers received antenatal steroids (1.98 +/- 1.05 ng/ml vs 0.94 +/- 0.39 ng/ml, p=0.004). Serum leptin increased postnatally from 1.52 +/- 1.0 ng/ml at birth to 2.2 +/- 1.3 ng/ml on day 28 of life (p=0.03). Mean serum leptin had an inverse exponential relationship with postnatal weight gain by day 28 of life (R2=0.56). Total caloric intake on days 14 and 28 of life did not correlate with postnatal weight gain.
Increased serum concentration of leptin following glucocorticoids may be associated with poor weight gain in sick preterm infants.
No preview · Article · Nov 2000 · Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism: JPEM
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although several trials of early dexamethasone therapy have been completed to determine if such therapy would reduce mortality and chronic lung disease (CLD) in infants with respiratory distress, optimal duration and side effects of such therapy remain unknown.
The purpose of this study was: 1) to determine if a 3-day course of early dexamethasone therapy would reduce CLD and increase survival without CLD in neonates who received surfactant therapy for respiratory distress syndrome and 2) to determine adverse effects associated with such therapy.
This was a prospective multicenter randomized trial comparing a 3-day course of dexamethasone therapy beginning at 24 to 48 hours of life to placebo therapy. Two hundred forty-one neonates (dexamethasone n = 118, placebo n = 123), who weighed between 500 g and 1500 g, received surfactant therapy, and were at significant risk for CLD or death using a model to predict CLD or death at 24 hours of life, were enrolled in the trial. Infants randomized to receive early dexamethasone were given 6 doses of dexamethasone at 12-hour intervals beginning at 24 to 48 hours of life. The primary outcomes compared were survival without CLD and CLD. CLD was defined by the need for supplemental oxygen at the gestational age of 36 weeks. Complication rates and adverse effects of study drug therapy were also compared.
Neonates randomized to early dexamethasone treatment were more likely to survive without CLD (RR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.7) and were less likely to develop CLD (RR: 0.6; CI: 0.3, 0. 98). Mortality rates were not significantly different. Subsequent dexamethasone therapy use was less in early dexamethasone-treated neonates (RR: 0.8; CI: 0.7, 0.96). Very early (</=7 days of life) intestinal perforations were more common among dexamethasone-treated neonates (8% vs 1%).
We conclude that an early 3-day course of dexamethasone therapy increases survival without CLD, reduces CLD, and reduces late dexamethasone therapy in high-risk, low birth weight infants who receive surfactant therapy for respiratory distress syndrome. Potential benefits of early dexamethasone therapy at the dosing schedule used in this trial need to be weighed against the risk for early intestinal perforation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine whether blood chemistry measurements obtained by a bedside blood analyzer through an umbilical artery catheter agreed with those obtained with use of conventional laboratory analyzers.
Forty-two neonates (1910 +/- 1000 gm) being treated in a level III neonatal intensive care unit had 88 blood samples drawn through an umbilical artery catheter. Serum sodium, potassium, glucose, and hematocrit concentrations were measured (n = 352) with use of a laboratory analyzer (0.7 ml of blood) and a bedside blood analyzer (0.06 ml of blood).
Only 5.7% of all measurement differences (20/352) were outside the predetermined clinically acceptable difference range, and just 1.4% (5/352) might have affected clinical decision making. Correlations between laboratory analyzer measurements and bedside blood analyzer measurements were excellent: serum potassium, r = 0.97, p = 0.0001; serum glucose, r = 0.93, p = 0.0001; and blood hematocrit, r = 0.93, p = 0.0001. Serum sodium measurement correlation was significant (p = 0.0001) but weaker (r = 0.86).
The bedside blood analyzer evaluated in this report is clinically useful for neonatal patients and could limit phlebotomy loss if used routinely.
No preview · Article · Jan 1998 · Journal of Perinatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether 24-hour SNAP scores generated from data gathered by primary bedside nurses agreed with the SNAP scores of one trained research nurse.
Primary bedside nurses (n = 50) in a level III private nursery collected data necessary for generating 24-hour SNAP scores on 60 consecutively admitted inborn neonates who lived at least 24 hours. The amount of time required for data collection and scoring was also determined. SNAP scores and the time required to generate them were compared with the unit research nurse's SNAP scores and time required to generate them on the same 60 patients. The Wilcoxon rank test and Spearman's rank correlation were used for statistical analyses.
SNAP scores generated from primary bedside nursing data did not differ from those of the research nurse's SNAP scores (11.7 +/- 0.8 vs 11.4 +/- 0.9 [mean +/- SEM], p = 0.7), and they correlated well over a wide range of SNAP scores (r = 0.93, p = 0.0001). Primary bedside nurses required more time (15 +/- 0.7 vs 3.0 +/- 0.08 minutes, p = 0.0001) to generate SNAP scores than the research nurse.
Primary bedside level III nurses can accurately obtain data for SNAP scores during 8- to 12-hour shifts.
No preview · Article · Jan 1998 · Journal of Perinatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical utility of a glucose reflectance meter to screen neonates for hypoglycemia.
One hundred six infants admitted to the observation or level III nursery with a screening whole blood glucose concentration < or = 2.8 mmol/L (< or = 50 mg/dl) had a second sample drawn to compare glucose reflectance meter measurements with those of corrected laboratory-determined glucose concentrations. Error grid analysis was used to determine clinical utility of the reflectance meter in a clinical setting.
No reading obtained with the glucose reflectance meter was > 2.2 mmol/L (40 mg/dl) in infants whose true whole blood glucose concentration was < or = 1.7 mmol/L (30 mg/dl). Only 0.9% (1/106) of glucose reflectance meter values were < or = 1.7 (< or = 30 mg/dl) when the simultaneous laboratory-determined whole-blood glucose concentration was > 2.2 mmol/L (40 mg/dl). Glucose concentrations obtained by the reflectance meter correlated (r = 0.77, p = 0.001) with laboratory-determined concentrations.
The glucose reflectance meter provides a rapid and clinically useful method of screening for neonatal hypoglycemia.
No preview · Article · Jul 1996 · Journal of Perinatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Indirect hyperbilirubinemia is a common cause for readmission to a hospital during the first week of life. Many newborn nurseries are ill equipped to readmit such newborns. The purpose of this study was to compare the care and treatment of infants with indirect hyperbilirubinemia who were readmitted to their birth hospital with those who were admitted to a hospital that differed from their birth hospital.
Retrospective cohort study.
Children's and community hospitals.
We reviewed the records of 100 newborns who were readmitted during the first week of life (36 were readmitted to their birth hospital) with a primary admission diagnosis of indirect hyperbilirubinemia.
Infants who were admitted to their birth hospital were less likely to have blood cultures (none of 36 vs 17 of 64, P = .0005), urine cultures (none of 36 vs eight of 64, P = .02), or more than one complete blood cell count (two of 36 vs 18 of 64, P = .001) performed compared with infants who were admitted to a nonbirth hospital. Antibiotic, intravenous therapy (P = .0005), and emergency department (P = .0001) use was more common among infants who were admitted to a nonbirth hospital. Infants who were admitted through the emergency department at a nonbirth hospital had phototherapy started later (mean +/- SD, 5.3 +/- 1.6 vs 2.2 +/- 1.7 hours; P = .0001) than did infants who were directly readmitted to the same nonbirth hospital.
Readmitting infants with indirect hyperbilirubinemia to birth hospitals or ensuring that accurate, timely, and complete information is obtained from the birth centers by admitting hospital personnel before laboratory studies and treatment are performed will reduce diagnostic workups and should reduce hospital charges for these infants. Phototherapy should be initiated in the emergency department if stabilization is required before admission.
No preview · Article · Jan 1995 · Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine