[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PurposeThis study investigated how aberration-controlling, customised soft contact lenses corrected higher-order ocular aberrations and visual performance in keratoconic patients compared to other forms of refractive correction (spectacles and rigid gas-permeable lenses).Methods
Twenty-two patients (16 rigid gas-permeable contact lens wearers and six spectacle wearers) were fitted with standard toric soft lenses and customised lenses (designed to correct 3rd-order coma aberrations). In the rigid gas-permeable lens-wearing patients, ocular aberrations were measured without lenses, with the patient's habitual lenses and with the study lenses (Hartmann-Shack aberrometry). In the spectacle-wearing patients, ocular aberrations were measured both with and without the study lenses. LogMAR visual acuity (high-contrast and low-contrast) was evaluated with the patient wearing their habitual correction (of either spectacles or rigid gas-permeable contact lenses) and with the study lenses.ResultsIn the contact lens wearers, the habitual rigid gas-permeable lenses and customised lenses provided significant reductions in 3rd-order coma root-mean-square (RMS) error, 3rd-order RMS and higher-order RMS error (p ≤ 0.004). In the spectacle wearers, the standard toric lenses and customised lenses significantly reduced 3rd-order RMS and higher-order RMS errors (p ≤ 0.005). The spectacle wearers showed no significant differences in visual performance measured between their habitual spectacles and the study lenses. However, in the contact lens wearers, the habitual rigid gas-permeable lenses and standard toric lenses provided significantly better high-contrast acuities compared to the customised lenses (p ≤ 0.006).Conclusions
The customised lenses provided substantial reductions in ocular aberrations in these keratoconic patients; however, the poor visual performances achieved with these lenses are most likely to be due to small, on-eye lens decentrations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report an interesting case of therapeutic scleral lens management of bilateral exposure and neurotrophic keratopathy resulting from bilateral cranial nerve (CN) palsies including V, VI and VII, which caused lagophthalmos and anaesthetic corneas. Subsequent development of severe exposure keratitis with vascularisation and keratinisation of the inferior cornea was previously treated with intensive ocular lubrication, botulinum toxin injections to the upper eyelid levator muscle, temporary tarsorrhophies, bilateral amniotic membrane grafts, punctal plugs, lid taping, gold eyelid weights and soft bandage contact lenses. Corneal integrity was re-established but visual acuity remained significantly compromised by corneal vascularisation, scarring and keratin deposits. Visions on presentation to the contact lens department were R 1.90logMAR, L 1.86logMAR. Therapeutic, high Dk, non-fenestrated, saline filled, scleral lenses were fitted. Daily wear of these lenses have protected and hydrated the cornea, enabling corneal surface recovery whilst retaining visual and social function. The visual acuities 6 months post-scleral fitting with lenses in situ are R 0.90logMAR and L logMAR0.70.
No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Contact lens & anterior eye: the journal of the British Contact Lens Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess visual performance and ocular aberrations in keratoconic patients using toric soft contact lenses (SCL), rigid-gas-permeable (RGP) contact lenses and spectacle lens correction.
Twenty-two keratoconus patients (16 RGP lens wearers and six spectacle wearers) were fitted with toric SCL. Ocular aberrations were measured with and without the patient's habitual RGP lenses and with the SCL in place. In the spectacle wearers, aberrations were measured with and without the SCL. Visual performance (high- and low-contrast visual acuity) was evaluated with the patient's habitual correction and with the SCL.
In the RGP lens wearers both the habitual lenses and the toric SCL significantly reduced coma, trefoil, 3rd-order, 4th-order cylinder and higher-order root-mean-square (RMS) aberrations (p ≤ 0.015). In the spectacle wearers the toric SCL significantly reduced coma, 3rd-order and higher-order RMS aberrations (p ≤ 0.01). The patients' habitual RGP lenses gave better low-contrast acuity (p ≤ 0.006) compared to the toric SCL; however, no significant difference was found between lens types for high-contrast acuity (p = 0.10). In the spectacle wearers no significant differences in visual performance measurements were found between the patients' spectacles and the toric SCL (p ≥ 0.06).
The results show that RGP lenses provided superior visual performances and greater reduction of 3rd-order aberrations compared to toric SCL in this group of keratoconic patients. In the spectacle-wearing group, visual performance with the toric SCL was found to be comparable to that measured with spectacles. Nevertheless, with the exception of spherical aberration, the toric SCL were successful in significantly reducing uncorrected higher-order aberrations.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the corneal volume in keratoconic and normal eyes to improve our understanding of the tissue distribution associated with the disease.
The Oculus Pentacam tomographer (Oculus Inc., Wetzlar, Germany) was used to analyze the corneal volume contained within discs with diameters of 3, 5, 7, and 10 mm in 21 patients with keratoconus and 21 matched healthy control subjects.
Corneal volume was significantly decreased in the keratoconus group (keratoconus vs. control group: 3.44 ± 0.39 vs. 4.05 ± 0.29 mm(3), 10.34 ± 0.95 vs. 11.79 ± 0.84 mm(3), 22.80 ± 1.73 vs. 25.26 ± 1.74 mm(3), and 57.17 ± 3.94 vs. 61.90 ± 4.12 mm(3) for the 3-, 5-, 7-, and 10-mm diameter discs, respectively; p < 0.001). As the corneal disc diameter analyzed increased, fewer differences were found between the control corneas and keratoconic corneas at different stages of the disease. Within the 3-mm and 5-mm diameter discs, significant differences were detected between the control group, moderate keratoconus, and the severe keratoconus groups (p < 0.05). However, within the 10-mm discs, differences were only detected between the control group and the severe keratoconus group (p = 0.005).
Corneal volume was significantly decreased in keratoconus, particularly in the central and paracentral area. The decrease in corneal volume in moderate and severe keratoconus as detected by the Pentacam tomographer, may be explained by loss of corneal tissue. In the early stages of the disease, the altered metabolic activity may cause tissue stretching and, as the disease progresses, this stretching is then accompanied by tissue loss.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Current eye research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate corneal nerve structure and function in a 24-year-old patient with keratoconus and prominent corneal nerves.
Corneal nerve appearance was assessed by using a corneal confocal microscope, and corneal nerve function was assessed by using a Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer. Findings were compared to those of an age-matched control subject without keratoconus.
The patient with keratoconus was found to have thicker nerve fiber bundles in the stroma (keratoconus vs. control, 9.8 +/- 5.0 microm vs. 5.4 +/- 2.7 microm) and reduced nerve fiber density in the subepithelial plexus (keratoconus vs. control, 269.7 +/- 145.6 microm vs. 1,258 +/- 254.8 mum) compared to the control subject. The patient with keratoconus was found to have reduced corneal sensitivity compared to the control subject (keratoconus vs. control 0.39 gr/mm2 vs. 1.59 gr/mm2).
Corneal confocal microscopy proved to be a useful in vivo technique for assessing corneal nerve structure in this patient with keratoconus. Although the total number of stromal nerve fiber bundles was reduced in the patient with keratoconus versus the control subject, the increased tortuosity and increased nerve fiber diameter may explain why the corneal nerves appear more visible in this patient with keratoconus.
No preview · Article · Apr 2007 · Eye & Contact Lens Science & Clinical Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate corneal nerve morphology and corneal sensitivity in keratoconus.
The central cornea of 13 subjects with keratoconus and 13 age-matched control subjects was assessed using in vivo confocal microscopy and corneal aesthesiometry.
Significant differences in corneal nerve fibre density were found between the subjects with keratoconus and the control subjects (keratoconus versus control; 1018.3+/-489.6 microm versus 1820.7+/-789.5 microm; p = 0.006). The mean diameter of nerve fibres in the stroma was found to be greater in subjects with keratoconus compared to control subjects (keratoconus versus control; 10.2+/-4.6 microm versus 5.5+/-1.9 microm; p = 0.007). The orientation of corneal nerve fibres in the subjects with keratoconus appeared to be altered from the predominantly vertical orientation seen in the control subjects. Corneal touch threshold was found to be similar in the two groups, although the subjects with keratoconus using contact lens correction had reduced corneal sensitivity compared to the contact lens-wearing control subjects (keratoconus with contact lenses versus controls with contact lenses; 1.18+/-0.19 g/mm2 versus 0.98+/-0.05 g/mm2; p = 0.03).
This study reveals significant reductions in nerve density in the keratoconic cornea. The thickened stromal nerve fibres observed in the keratoconic corneas may explain why prominent corneal nerves are often seen using slit lamp biomicroscopy in keratoconic patients.
No preview · Article · Jan 2006 · Contact Lens & Anterior Eye