[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to establish safety and feasibility of oral Rapamycin at two doses-2 mg and 5 mg-in achieving low rates of repeat target lesion revascularization (TLR) in de novo native coronary artery lesions.
Drug-eluting stents have shown the ability to limit restenosis. Oral Rapamycin is an alternative strategy that can target multiple coronary lesions suitable for treatment with any approved metal stent and at potentially lower cost.
The Oral Rapamune to Inhibit Restenosis (ORBIT) study is an open-label study of 60 patients with de novo lesions treated with bare metal stents in up to two vessels. After a loading dose of 5 mg, patients received a daily dose of 2 mg (n = 30) and 5 mg (n = 30) for 30 days. Six-month angiographic, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), and clinical follow-up were conducted.
Baseline clinical and procedural characteristics were similar: 10% of patients in the 2-mg group and 30% in the 5-mg group did not complete the course; 43% in the 2-mg group and 66% in the 5-mg group had side effects. At six-month follow-up, late loss (0.6 +/- 0.5 mm vs. 0.7 +/- 0.5 mm; p = NS), in-stent binary restenosis (7.1% vs. 6.9%; p = NS), in-stent percent volume obstruction by IVUS (29% vs. 24%; p = NS), and clinically driven TLR (14.3% vs. 6.9%; p = NS) were similar in 2-mg and 5-mg groups.
Oral Rapamycin for the prevention of restenosis is safe, feasible, and associated with low rates of repeat revascularization. Although associated with certain side effects, it may be considered for patients undergoing multivessel stents if proven in larger randomized studies.
Preview · Article · Nov 2004 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While coronary stenting has become standard of care for percutaneous interventions (PCIs), in-stent restenosis has persisted as a major obstacle. The prevention of restenosis has focused on inhibition of smooth muscle cell (SMC) division. The development of drug-eluting stents has allowed stents to be used as vehicles for prolonged and sufficient intramural drug delivery. Clinical efficacy and safety have been established for simple lesion morphologies using the Rapamycin-eluting stent (Cypher, Cordis, Miami, Florida), which incorporates a Rapamycin polymer onto bare metal (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7). However, as the drug-eluting stent technology is limited to a stent platform, it may cause vessel toxicity with the potential development of aneurysms, edge effect, thrombosis, and stent malapposition (8, 9 and 10). Although clinical results are encouraging, this technology, when applied to multivessel disease, is expensive and not economically sustainable. Rapamycin (sirolimus) is a natural macrocyclic lactone with potent immunosuppressive and anti-proliferative activity that was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 1999 for prophylaxis against renal transplant rejection (11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17).
No preview · Article · Oct 2004 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preintervention intravascular ultrasound characteristics of native coronary artery culprit lesions were compared between patients with acute coronary syndromes and elevated troponin I levels and patients with acute coronary syndromes with normal troponin T on admission, Patients with elevated troponin I levels had: (1) larger lesion site external elastic membrane and plaque areas and plaque but-den: (2) larger reference segment external elastic membrane and plaque area; and (3) more evidence of thrombus, suggesting more complex lesions and more severe and diffuse coronary disease, which may explain the worse outcomes of patients with elevated troponin 1.
No preview · Article · Jun 2002 · The American Journal of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intramural hematomas during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have not been well studied.
We used intravascular ultrasound to determine the incidence, morphology, and clinical features of post-PCI intramural hematomas. In 905 patients with 1025 consecutive native coronary artery, non-in-stent restenosis lesions undergoing PCI, 72 hematomas were detected in 69 arteries in 68 patients. The incidence of intramural hematomas per artery was 6.7% (69 of 1025); 36% (26 of 72) involved the proximal reference artery, 18% (13 of 72) were confined to the lesion, and 46% (33 of 72) involved the distal reference artery. The entry site from the lumen into the hematoma was identified in 86% of hematomas (62 of 72) and had the appearance of a dissection into the media. Conversely, a re-entry site was identifiable in only 8% (6 of 72). The axial extension of the hematoma was distal in 63% and proximal in 37%. In 60% of the hematomas (42 of 72) the angiogram had the appearance of a dissection; in 11% (8 of 72), it appeared to be a new stenosis; and in 29% (22 of 72), no significant abnormality was detected. Non-Q-wave myocardial infarctions occurred in 26% of patients (17 of 65). In 3 patients, the creatine kinase-MB was not measured during the hospital stay. Repeat revascularization occurred in 2 patients in-hospital, 2 additional patients at 1 month, and 8 additional patients at 1 year. There were 3 sudden deaths at 1 year.
Intravascular ultrasound identified intramural hematomas after 6.7% of PCIs. The mechanism appeared to be a dissection into the media where blood accumulated because of a lack of re-entry. A third of ultrasound-identified hematomas showed no angiographic abnormalities. There was a high rate of non-Q-wave myocardial infarction, need for repeat revascularization, and sudden death in patients with hematomas.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of overlapping beta-emitter sources on the treatment of in-stent restenosis (ISR) lesions as a result of manual stepping are unknown.
In the BETA WRIST (Beta Washington Radiation for In-stent Restenosis Trial), 17 out of the 50 patients who received radiation treatment had diffuse ISR in native coronaries that required manual stepping of the beta-emitter (90Y) source in order to cover the lesion and the edges. Fourteen of those patients received radiation with an overlap of up to 3 mm in the middle of the stented segment. The prescribed dose was 20.6 Gy to a distance of 1.0 mm from the surface of the inflated balloon, and the calculated dose to the vessel wall at the overlapped area did not exceed 75 Gy. There was no difference in late total occlusion (7.1% vs. 9.0%, P=NS) and target lesion revascularization (28.5% vs. 27.2%, P=NS) between patients with stepping and those without stepping. At 6 months, there was no evidence of perforation or aneurysm at the overlapped segments. Quantitative coronary angiographic (QCA) analysis revealed significantly reduced late loss in the overlapped segment compared to the adjacent segment (P=.04). Serial (postradiation vs. follow-up) IVUS measurement showed larger mean lumen cross-sectional area (CSA) (P=.0035) and smaller mean intimal hyperplasia (IH) CSA (P=.0010) in the overlapped segment compared to the adjacent segment.
Manual stepping of beta-emitter source with a short overlapped segment is safe for diffuse ISR. Further increase in lumen dimension and reduction in IH formation are observed at the overlapped segment.
No preview · Article · Mar 2002 · Cardiovascular Radiation Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to use serial volumetric intravascular ultrasound to evaluate the effect of gamma-radiation on recurrent in-stent restenosis.
After successful reintervention, patients were randomized to receive either (192)Ir or placebo. Intravascular ultrasound studies with motorized pullback (0.5 mm/s) were performed immediately after irradiation and at 8-month follow-up in 70 patients. Paired volumetric analysis of the stented segment and of 5-mm proximal and distal reference segments was performed; this included measurements of the external elastic membrane, lumen, plaque and media (external elastic membrane minus lumen), stent, and intimal hyperplasia (stent minus lumen). Baseline proximal reference, stent, and distal reference measurements were similar in both groups. The changes in proximal and distal reference measurements of the external elastic membrane, plaque and media, and lumen areas were similar in both groups. However, the decrease in stented segment lumen volume was less in the (192)Ir patients than the placebo patients (-25+/-34 mm(3) versus -48+/-42 mm(3); P:=0.0225), and the increase in the volume of intimal hyperplasia in the stented segment was less in the (192)Ir patients than in the placebo patients (28+/-37 mm(3) versus 50+/-40 mm(3); P:=0.0352). When averaged over the length of the stented segment (32+/-13 mm versus 33+/-14 mm; P:=0.9), the increase in mean area of intimal hyperplasia was 0.8+/-1.0 mm(2) in the (192)Ir group and 1.6+/-1.2 mm(2) in the control group (P:=0.0065). Late stent-vessel wall malapposition was noted in one placebo patient and no (192)Ir patients.
gamma-Radiation therapy can effectively prevent recurrent in-stent restenosis by inhibiting neointimal formation within the stent. At the stent edge, there were no significant differences between (192)Ir and placebo patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiography is limited in determining the anatomic severity of coronary artery stenoses. Clinical decision-making in patients with symptoms and intermediate lesions remains challenging.
The current analysis included 300 patients (357 intermediate native artery lesions) in whom intervention was deferred based on intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) findings. Standard clinical, angiographic, and IVUS parameters were collected. Patients were followed for >1 year. Events occurred in 24 patients (8%). They included 2 cardiac deaths, 4 myocardial infarctions, and 18 target-lesion revascularizations (TLR; 12 percutaneous transluminal coronary angiographies and 6 coronary artery bypass grafts; only 3 TLRs occurred within 6 months after the IVUS study). All significant univariate clinical, angiographic, and IVUS parameters (P<0.05) were tested in multivariate models. These included diabetes mellitus, IVUS lesion lumen area, maximum lumen diameter, minimum lumen diameter, plaque area, plaque burden, and area stenosis (AS). No angiographic measurement was significant at P<0.05. The only independent predictors of an event (death, myocardial infarction, or TLR) were IVUS minimum lumen area and AS. The only independent predictors of TLR were diabetes mellitus, IVUS minimum lumen area, and AS. In 248 lesions with a minimum lumen area >/=4.0 mm(2), the event rate was only 4.4% and the TLR rate 2.8%.
Long-term follow-up after IVUS-guided deferred interventions in patients with de novo intermediate native artery lesions showed a low event rate. In patients with a minimum lumen area >/=4.0 mm(2), the event rate was especially low. IVUS imaging is an acceptable alternative to physiological assessment in these patients.