- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: British anti-Lewisite (BAL) (2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol) is a potential therapeutic compound when used against the effects of cutaneous sulfur mustard, and a method for its determination in plasma has been developed. BAL and the internal standard (IS) ethane dithiol were isolated from plasma samples through solid-phase extraction and then reacted with 1-pentafluoropropionylimidazole, forming stable pentafluoropropionyl derivates that are sensitive to gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis. Examination of concentration versus peak-area ratios of the BAL and IS derivatives demonstrated the method to be linear over a concentration range of 0.48 to 124 ng/mL in plasma when fit to a weighted (1/y2) least-squares regression. Correlation coefficients were 0.9943 to 0.9995 for six runs, and coefficients of variation (CV) were 2.5 to 8.7% over the eight concentrations tested. The intra- and interday accuracy and precision of this method was measured by examining six groups of eight unknown test samples (n = 6). Intraday accuracy, as expressed by percent error, was found to range from -15.4 to 0.21%, whereas the precision, expressed as %CV, was less than 9.8% over all sample concentrations. Interday test unknown sample results were similar in that the accuracy was shown to be -7.1 to 0.4%, and precision was 4.7 to 9.5%. BAL levels in frozen plasma (-70 degrees C) remained constant for more than 14 days with a CV of less than 10% for the eight concentrations tested. The data indicate that the method will provide accurate and precise determination of BAL at concentrations down to approximately 1 ng/mL in plasma. This procedure has been applied to determine preliminary time-concentration profile studies of BAL in the hairless guinea pig.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies have demonstrated that benzodiazepine compounds are effective at antagonizing seizure activity produced by the organophosphate (OP) cholinesterase inhibitor soman. In this present study we have investigated the pharmacokinetics of midazolam and its associated effects on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity following intramuscular (i.m.) injection to soman-exposed guinea pigs (Crl:(HA)BR). Prior to experiments, the animals were surgically implanted with EEG leads to monitor seizure activity. For the study, animals were administered the following pretreatment/OP/treatment regimen. Pyridostigmine bromide (0.026 mg/kg, i.m.) was given 30 min prior to soman (56 micrograms/kg, 2 x LD50; subcutaneously, s.c.), followed in one minute by atropine sulfate (2 mg/kg, i.m.) and pralidoxime chloride (25 mg/kg, i.m.). All animals receiving this regimen developed seizure activity. Midazolam 0.8 mg/kg, i.m., was administered 5 min after onset of seizure activity. Based on EEG data, animals were categorized as either seizure-terminated or seizure not-terminated at 30 min following anticonvulsant administration. Serial blood samples were collected for the plasma midazolam analysis; the assay was accomplished with a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer. The mean time to seizure termination was 8.8 +/- 1.6 min. The mean time-plasma concentration data were fit to standard pharmacokinetic models. The following parameter estimates were determined from the model-fit for seizure terminated and not-terminated animals respectively: apparent volumes of distribution (Vd) were 1.4 and 1.7 l/kg; area under the time-concentration curves (AUC), 15,990 and 15,120 ng.min/ml; times to maximal plasma concentration (Tmax), 1.66 and 2.91 min and maximal plasma concentrations (Cmax) 535.1 and 436.6 ng/ml. These data indicate that i.m. injection of midazolam is effective at terminating ongoing soman-induced seizure activity. Additionally, the relatively short Tmax and latency to seizure termination demonstrate the rapidity of drug absorption and action respectively.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biperiden is an anticholinergic compound that has demonstrated effectiveness for treating organophosphate-induced seizure/convulsions. The plasma levels of biperiden associated with this efficacy have not yet been defined. In this study, the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of biperiden after intramuscular administration of 0.5 mg/kg were conducted while monitoring pharmacodynamic (electroencephalographic) data in soman-exposed guinea pigs. Overall, 59% of the animals had seizures terminated within 30 min of the biperiden administration. The mean time to seizure termination was 15.9 min. The pharmacokinetics of biperiden after i.m. administration to guinea pigs were best described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. The maximal plasma biperiden concentration (34.4 ng/mL) in seizure-terminated animals occurred at 26.3 min. Extensive partitioning into peripheral tissues was noted supporting the relatively large volume of distribution observed. Maximal biperiden concentrations in the cortex and brain stem were found at 30 min and were 2.3 and 1.7 times greater, respectively, than that in plasma. The time for maximal plasma concentration was found to corresponded well with the mean time to seizure termination following drug administration.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method has been developed for the analysis of the biperiden from plasma. The method utilizes 290 µl of plasma and a simple hexane extraction/clean-up procedure. Standard curves were linear over the range of 1.9–250 ng/mL. The range of correlation coefficients for the individual standard curves was 0.9984–0.9999; the largest coefficient of variation expressed as a percentage (%CV) was 11.5%. Precision and accuracy were examined by assessing between-day and within-day variability. For between-day precision, the %CVs ranged from 2.86 to 5.17%. Accuracy as expressed by percentage error ranging from −2.16 to 5.83%. The study for within-day precision demonstrated %CVs from 0.95 to 5.55% with accuracy from −3.37 to 2.45%. Applicability of the method was demonstrated by examining the pharmacokinetics of intramuscular (i.m.) biperiden as an anticonvulsant treatment in a guinea pig model for organophosphate (OP)-induced seizure activity. Mean pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were similar to literature values; selected mean pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were: apparent volume of distribution, 13.9 L/kg; half-life of elimination, 93 min; time to maximal plasma concentration, 27.4 min; and maximal plasma concentration, 32.22 ηg/mL. The time to maximal plasma concentration was found to be similar to the onset time for terminating OP-induced seizure activity in guinea pigs receiving biperiden as an anticonvulsant treatment. The studies indicate that the method affords the required precision, accuracy and sensitivity to assay biperiden at the doses utilized for these pharmacokinetic studies after i.m. administration to guinea pigs. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Acetylcholinesterase area under the curve organophosphate pralidoxime chloride pyridostigmine
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intramuscular (i.m.) diazepam is included by the US military as an anticonvulsant in the standard therapeutic regimen for organophosphorus nerve agent intoxication. In this study we investigated the pharmacokinetics of diazepam after i.m. administration while monitoring pharmacodynamic (electroencephalogram, EEG) data in soman-exposed guinea pigs. Prior to experiments the animals were surgically implanted with EEG leads to monitor seizure activity. For the study, animals were administered pyridostigmine (0.026 mg x kg(-1) i.m.) 30 min prior to soman (56 microg x kg(-1), 2 x LD50; subcutaneously, s.c.), which was followed in 1 min by atropine sulfate (2 mg x kg(-1) i.m.) and pralidoxime chloride (25 mg x kg(-1) i.m.). All animals receiving this regimen developed seizure activity. Diazepam (10 mg x kg(-1) i.m.) was administered 5 min after onset of seizure activity. Based on EEG data, animals were categorized as either seizure terminated or not terminated at 30 min after diazepam. Serial blood samples were obtained from each animal. Diazepam (10 mg x kg(-1) i.m.) terminated seizure activity in 52% of the animals within 30 min. The pharmacokinetics were characterized by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. The maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) were 991 and 839 ng x ml(-1) for seizure terminated and not terminated, respectively. Mean plasma concentrations of diazepam were significantly different (P < 0.05) for seizure terminated vs not terminated groups at 30 min. The plasma Cmax in seizure-terminated animals in this study is similar to the minimum range of plasma diazepam (200-800 ng x ml(-1)) reported to suppress seizure activity in humans. It has been reported in an earlier study that the minimum effective i.m. dose (0.1 mg x kg(-1)) required to prevent soman-induced convulsions in Rhesus monkeys produces a mean Cmax of 50 ng x ml(-1) for diazepam. The data from our current study suggest that a higher dose (and corresponding Cmax) is necessary to terminate ongoing seizure activity.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The selective blockade of potassium channels on excitable membranes by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) leads to facilitation of neurotransmitter release at a wide variety of synapses. This compound has been shown to be efficacious against lethality induced by saxitoxin (STX) and tetrodotoxin (TTX) in guinea pigs. To characterize the actions of 4-AP in guinea pigs we have investigated its pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics following a 2 mg/kg, intramuscular (im) dose in awake chronically instrumented (IN) animals. Animals were chronically instrumented for electrophysiologic recordings of diaphragmatic electromyogram (DEMG), lead II electrocardiogram (ECGII) and electrocorticogram (ECoG). Also, PK studies were carried out in uninstrumented (UN) guinea pigs. Blood and electrophysiologic data were collected at predetermined time intervals up to 4 hours post 4-AP administration. High performance liquid chromatography was used to determine plasma 4-AP concentrations. For IN and UN animals, plasma concentration-time data best fit a one-compartment model, and PK parameter estimates were similar for both groups. Peak plasma levels were found to occur between 16 and 17 min, and the half-lives of elimination were 65 and 71 min for IN and UN animals respectively. Heart and respiratory rates were elevated as early as 5 and 15 min respectively in response to 4-AP administration. The duration of action was approximately 1-1.5 half-lives of elimination beyond peak plasma levels. Maximum ECoG responses were observed between 12-15 min after 4-AP injection; some residual drug effects were still apparent at 240 min. The difference between the heart and respiratory rates and ECoG profiles suggests that these different physiological systems respond with varying degrees of sensitivity to plasma 4-AP concentrations. The stimulation of these systems is consistent with the action of 4-AP in reversing STX- and TTX-induced cardiorespiratory depression and decreased ECoG power in guinea pigs.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An HPLC assay has been developed to measure 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) in guinea pig plasma. For the assay, all plasma samples (50 microL) were microfiltered following the addition of an internal standard (3,4-diaminopyridine). Filtrates (10 microL) were directly injected into a spherical silica column (100 x 2.1 mm; 5 microns); detection was achieved at 266 nm. Standard curves had correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9923 to 0.9992 and coefficients of variation expressed as a percentage (% CV) of below 8%. Precision was expressed as between-day and within-day variability of five test sample concentrations. Between-day % CV ranged from 4.0 to 6.5%. Within-day % CV ranged from 3.6 to 6.9%. Accuracy was assessed by examining expected within-day test sample concentrations against calculated concentrations; per cent errors were all below 10%. Stability studies demonstrated % CV below 5% after repeated freezing. The method was employed to study the pharmacokinetics of 4-AP after intravenous administration to anaesthetized guinea pigs. Serial blood samples (150 microL) were collected at predetermined time intervals up to 4 h post-4-AP (2 mg/kg, i.v.) administration. 4-AP demonstrated a biexponential decline in the plasma-concentration curve as a function of time indicating a two compartment model for this drug. Selected mean pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were alpha-half-life, 0.37 min; beta-half-life (biological half-life) for terminal slope, 109 min; and volume of distribution at steady state, 1036.18 mL/kg. 4-AP was found to rapidly and extensively partition into a peripheral tissue compartment and demonstrated a relatively long biological half-life. The findings from the current pharmacokinetic experiments support the pharmacology of 4-AP in its role for reversing saxitoxin (STX)- and tetrodotoxin (TTX)-induced diaphragmatic failure in terms of onset of action and duration of effect in anaesthetized guinea pigs.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the compatibility, in terms of red blood cell acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, of ondansetron (OND; a 5-hydroxytryptamine subtype-3 receptor antagonist) with the organophosphorus pretreatment compound pyridostigmine (PYR) after simultaneous oral (p.o.) administration to guinea pigs. The time-course of PYR-induced (0.94 mg/kg, p.o.) AChE inhibition was determined in the absence and presence of OND. Ondansetron (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg; p.o.) did not modify AChE inhibition, whereas concurrent administration of PYR with OND (10 or 20 mg/kg; p.o.) produced significantly greater decreases in AChE activity than PYR alone. The decreases in AChE activity for PYR plus OND, 10 and 20 mg/kg, (between 30 -240 min) were 12.3 +/- 2.8% and 16.1 +/- 2.3% (mean +/- SD) respectively relative to PYR alone. The slope for recovery of AChE activity (120 - 240 min) was 0.0914 for PYR alone; recovery rates (slopes) for PYR plus OND, 10 and 20 mg/kg, were 0.0796 and 0.0433 respectively. Additionally, altered PYR-induced AChE activity profiles were ameliorated when PYR and OND (20 mg/kg) were administered 150 min apart. Since the results of this study provided evidence that the oral administration of OND alone did not inhibit AChE, the changes in PYR-induced AChE activity by the simultaneous administration of OND suggest mechanisms other than a direct action on the enzyme. The significance of these findings is that the increased AChE inhibition resulting from simultaneous oral administration of both component could result in undesirable cholinergic toxicities and subsequent perform decrements.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serotonin receptor subtype three (5HT3) antagonists, such as the drug ondansetron (OND), have been developed as effective anti-emetic compounds. The purpose of this study was to assess the drug interactions of OND (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg) with the organophosphorus pretreatment compound pyridostigmine (PYR; 0.94 mg/kg) after simultaneous oral administration to guinea pigs. Compatibility was assessed by determining (1) OND pharmacokinetics in the absence (Phase 1) and presence (Phase 2) of pyridostigmine (PYR) and (2) PYR-induced acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition kinetics in the absence (Phase 1) and the presence (Phase 2) of OND. AChE inhibition was examined because it has been shown to be an indicator of PYR efficacy against OP-induced lethality. The pharmacokinetics of OND alone and in the presence of PYR were linear and best described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination rate kinetics. For OND 30 mg/kg the K10 was found to be significantly smaller in Phase 2 than Phase 1 (p < 0.05).
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of granisetron (GRN) in guinea pig plasma has been developed. Guinea pig plasma spiked with GRN was microfiltered, and the recovered filtrate was directly injected onto the column without any further cleanup procedures. Separation was achieved on a spherical silica column and GRN was detected at 305 nm. Approximately 800-900 injections were made without any evidence of column deterioration. For the standard curves, correlation coefficients ranged from 0.9978-0.9999, and the percent standard deviation (%SD) from the mean area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to be less than 10% for all concentrations, except for the lowest concentration (0.325 ng/microL, 11.3%). Between-day and within-day coefficients of variation (%CV) ranged from 4.9 to 9.5% and 3.6 to 7.6%, respectively. Percent errors for within-day test plasma samples were not greater than 8.2% of the expected concentration for all samples except for 1.125 ng/microL (-14.6%). The limit of sensitivity was found to be 0.019 ng/microL. Estimated recovery of GRN in the microfiltrate was calculated to be 58-59% and 78-81% in plasma and water, respectively. Stability studies indicated that repeated refrigeration and warming (for six days) of microfiltered GRN plasma samples produced no changes in GRN concentrations from day to day. However, microfiltered GRN plasma samples that were repeatedly frozen and thawed demonstrated erratic concentration changes from day to day. The precision, accuracy, and small sample requirements of this method indicate its utility for pharmacokinetic studies in small animals where sample volume may be restrictive.
US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical DefenseAberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, United States