[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the histopathologic features of iridectomy specimens from patients undergoing glaucoma surgery and to compare histologic abnormalities in a group of patients with a history of latanoprost therapy with those in a group of patients who had no history of prostaglandin therapy (controls).
Iridectomy specimens and patient history forms were submitted to the central Latanoprost Pathology Center. These were independently examined by 3 ophthalmic pathologists in a masked fashion. Specimens were evaluated for malignant, premalignant, and other changes including differences in levels of pigmentation, degrees of cellularity, inflammation, vascular abnormalities, and changes in the iris pigment epithelium.
Specimens were received from 449 patients with a history of latanoprost treatment and 142 patients who had no history of treatment with latanoprost or other prostaglandin analogues. No evidence of malignant or premalignant changes was found. In latanoprost-treated irides, the prevalence of iris freckles was higher (P = .001) than in control irides, as was the combined number of stromal fibroblasts and melanocytes (P<.001). In a subgroup of specimens received through June 2002, there was no significant difference in mean melanocyte counts (P=.35) obtained by immunohistochemical staining techniques between the latanoprost-treated and control groups.
These findings support previous studies indicating that latanoprost-induced eye color changes are due to an increased amount of melanin within the iris stromal melanocytes. The increased numbers of freckles may be a focal manifestation of this effect.
No preview · Article · Nov 2004 · Archives of Ophthalmology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the effectiveness of the vitamin D analogue 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D(2) (1alpha-OH-D(2)) in inhibiting ocular tumor growth in transgenic "Tyr-Tag" mice that developed pigmented ocular tumors produced with the simian virus 40 T and t antigens under the control of the mouse tyrosinase gene. These animals develop pigmented intraocular tumors primarily from the retinal pigment epithelium that closely resemble the histologic features and growth pattern of human choroidal melanoma.
A total of 73 Tyr-Tag transgenic mice between 6 and 7 weeks old were randomly assigned by sex and litter to 3 treatment groups to receive 0.05 microg/d, 0.1 microg/d, or 0.2 microg/d of 1alpha-OH-D(2); a control group received vehicle (coconut oil). The drug was administered by oral gavage 5 times a week for 5 weeks. The animals were then euthanized and their eyes were enucleated and processed histologically. Three serial sections from each eye were examined microscopically and the mean tumor area measured using Optimus software version 6.5 (Media Cybernetics LP, Silver Spring, Md). Toxic adverse effects were assessed on the basis of mortality, weight loss, and serum calcium levels.
The mean tumor size in the 0.1- microg/d and 0.2- microg/d dose groups was smaller than in the controls (P<.001). No significant difference was seen between the 0.05- microg/d dose group and the control group (P =.64). Survival for the 0.1- microg/d and 0.2- microg/d dose groups was lower than for the controls (95% in the controls vs 85.7% and 73.7%, respectively; P<.01).
In the Tyr-Tag transgenic mouse, 1alpha-OH-D(2) inhibits pigmented ocular tumor growth at moderate drug levels with relatively low mortality. Clinical Relevance Vitamin D analogues merit further preclinical study in the treatment of ocular melanoma.
No preview · Article · Sep 2004 · Archives of Ophthalmology