[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although Helicobacter pylori infection is closely associated with gastric cancer development, follow-up studies after H. pylori eradication are still scarce.
To clarify the cancer preventive effect of H. pylori eradication, with special attention to differences in effect according to histology.
Patients who underwent H. pylori eradication therapy and were followed-up endoscopically for at least 1 year were analysed. The incidence of gastric cancer and factors associated with cancer development were investigated.
A total of 1807 patients were enrolled. Six of 1519 H. pylori eradicated and five of 288 persistent subjects developed gastric cancer. Four of the eradicated subjects developed the intestinal type and two the diffuse type, while four of the persistent subjects developed the intestinal type and one the diffuse type. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated a significantly lower incidence in eradicated patients than in persistent patients. The incidence of intestinal type was significantly lower than in eradicated patients, while the diffuse type could not be evaluated because of the low incidence.
Helicobacter pylori-eradicated patients had a reduced incidence of gastric cancer compared with H. pylori-persistent patients, particularly the intestinal type, suggesting that H. pylori is strongly associated with intestinal-type gastric cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bleeding from esophageal varices is one of the frequent severe complications arising in patients with liver cirrhosis. The management of esophageal varices is therefore important for patient survival. The purpose of this study was to clarify the predictive factors for mortality in patients with Child C cirrhosis presenting with variceal bleeding.
A retrospective analysis of 77 Child C cirrhotic patients with bleeding from esophageal varices was conducted. All patients received endoscopic therapy. Twenty-nine patients received endoscopic variceal ligation, and 48 patients received endoscopic injection sclerotherapy or endoscopic injection sclerotherapy with ligation. Univariate and multivariate analyses of clinical data were performed to identify the prognostic factors for survival for these 77 patients.
Fifty-seven of 77 patients received endoscopic therapy within 24 h after variceal bleeding, and bleeding was controlled in 55 (96.5%). The remaining 20 patients received endoscopic therapy more than 24 h after bleeding. Higher bilirubin level and rebleeding were the predictive parameters for 6-week survival in the 77 patients, according to univariate and multivariate analysis. Higher bilirubin level, refractory ascites, and the presence of hepatocellular carcinoma were the predictive parameters for mortality in 77 patients as determined by multivariate analysis.
Endoscopic therapy was effective in controlling acute variceal bleeding of Child C cirrhotic patients. The prognosis of Child C stage patients presenting with variceal bleeding depended on the severity of liver damage and the presence of hepatocellular carcinoma.
No preview · Article · Dec 2006 · Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Corticosteroid administration is an important therapy for active ulcerative colitis. However, long-term corticosteroid use is associated with serious complications such as osteoporosis, diabetes, and growth retardation. The effect of combination therapy corticosteroid plus leukocytapheresis has been previously reported, but that of leukocytapheresis with no corticosteroid is unknown. We carried out a preliminary study of six patients (two men and four women) with active ulcerative colitis (severe in two, moderately severe in four) who did not respond to 5-aminosalicylate derivatives, but refused corticosteroid use. Centrifugal leukocytapheresis was carried out once per week totaling four sessions per course. Treatment was considered effective when patients experienced clinical remission, which was defined as a frequency of diarrhea of four times or less and absence of visible blood in the stool, after one course. Leukocytapheresis was effective in five of six patients(83%). With cases stratified by severity, both severe cases and three of four moderately severe cases showed effectiveness. Clinical activity scores according to Lichtiger et al. in cases where leukocytapheresis was effective decreased from 9.8 to 6.6 at 1 week (P < 0.0001), declining further 2.4 at the end of the course. No obvious complications of leukocytapheresis were noted except for a decrease in hemoglobin by 1 g/dL. Centrifugal leukocytapheresis without corticosteroid treatment can induce remission in patients with active ulcerative colitis, and might be particularly beneficial for patients in whom adverse effects preclude the use of corticosteroids.
No preview · Article · Jul 2006 · Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis: official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leukocytapheresis has recently been used to induce remission in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) who fail to respond to corticosteroids. We could not find a report in the literature on leukocytapheresis for UC with gestational exacerbation. We have recently encountered this unique condition and report the details here. A 30-year-old Japanese woman with left-sided severe UC was corticosteroid-dependent and had recurrence of the active disease during tapering of corticosteroid. She declined any dose increase and the use of any immunosuppressive agent because she was in the 13th week of pregnancy. Then, concomitant leukocytapheresis was performed without increasing the corticosteroid dose. Recovery was rapid and dramatic. Mucous and bloody stool decreased after the first session, and she had remission 2 weeks later. She underwent a total of four sessions without complications. After 6 weeks, she was discharged from our hospital and underwent maintenance treatment as an outpatient with mesalazine and corticosteroid tapering. Subsequently, she gave birth to a healthy baby girl by an uncomplicated vaginal delivery while keeping the remitted stage of UC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have shown previously that concentrations of stool decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55), a complement regulatory protein, in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) are increased in relation to the severity of the colonic mucosal inflammation. In the present study, we evaluated the usefulness of stool DAF as a marker for monitoring disease activity in patients with steroid-resistant active UC being treated with leukocyte apheresis performed with a centrifugal cell separator.
Twenty-one patients with active and steroid-resistant UC were treated with leukocyte apheresis once a week for 4 weeks, and stool DAF concentrations were determined weekly by immunoassay.
After treatment, 11 (52%) of the 21 UC patients went into remission. Stool DAF concentrations decreased promptly and steadily in the responsive group. The difference reached statistical significance as soon as after the second apheresis session (P < 0.003), compared with values before the therapy and corresponding values in the non-responsive group (P = 0.024). The reduction in stool DAF concentrations after the second apheresis session was significantly greater in the responsive group (median 90%, range 22-90%) than in the non-responsive group (median -13%, range -307-94%) (P = 0.008). Hematological tests, that is, white blood cell (WBC) count and C-reactive protein, declined significantly during the apheresis therapy, but not in relation to therapeutic response.
Stool DAF concentration is a useful marker in the clinical response of UC patients to treatment with leukocyte apheresis.
No preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Altered expression of three complement regulatory proteins, decay-accelerating factor (CD55), membrane cofactor protein (CD46) and homologous restriction factor 20 (CD59) has been identified in human gastrointestinal malignancies, but their expression in esophageal cancer has not been described. Therefore the purpose of the present paper was to study the distribution of these proteins in human normal and malignant esophageal mucosa.
In the normal esophageal mucosa, CD55 predominantly stained on the cell membrane of squamous epithelium in the superficial and prickle cell layers, whereas CD46 most intensely stained on the cell membrane in the basal and parabasal cell layers. In contrast to this reciprocal expression of CD55 and CD46, CD59 was broadly distributed on the cell membrane in all layers. In the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, CD55 staining was intense in the stroma but was negligible in the cancer cells. In contrast, CD46 and CD59 stained almost uniformly on the tumor cell membrane. There was a significant difference in the intensity of the staining of CD55 and CD46 among cells in various layers of normal esophageal mucosa and esophageal carcinoma cells, but not in the staining of CD59. Similar expression patterns of the three complement regulatory proteins in carcinoma cells and in normal epithelium in the basal and parabasal cell layers were observed.
These observations on the expression of the three complement regulatory proteins would help understanding of the host immune responses involving the complement system against esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
No preview · Article · Jul 2004 · Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intestinal-type epithelium in Barrett's esophagus, so-called specialized intestinal metaplasia (SIM), is a risk factor for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Surface expression of decay-accelerating factor (DAF), a complement-regulatory protein, is markedly enhanced in intestinal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa. We therefore examined DAF expression in areas of SIM in Barrett's esophagus in an attempt to determine whether DAF is a biomarker of SIM. We obtained 53 endoscopic biopsy specimens from the esophageal columnar mucosae of 45 patients. We immunohistochemically examined the distribution of DAF and 2 other complement-regulatory proteins: homologous restriction factor-20 and membrane cofactor protein. We also examined the expression of DAF messenger RNA in SIM with the use of laser-capture microdissection and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Of the 53 specimens, 10 were found histologically to involve areas of SIM, 41 were SIM-negative epithelium, and 2 comprised areas of SIM and SIM-negative epithelium. DAF staining was negligible in 35 of 43 specimens of the SIM-negative columnar epithelium, but DAF was strongly stained on the apical surface in all 12 SIM-positive specimens (P <.0001). In the 2 biopsy specimens in which both SIM and SIM-negative columnar epithelium were present, DAF staining was confined to the area of SIM. The expression of DAF messenger RNA was detected significantly more often in SIM than in SIM-negative columnar epithelium (P =.022). We conclude that DAF may be a surface marker for SIM and therefore useful in the identification of areas of the mucosa at risk for the development of adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus.
No preview · Article · Apr 2004 · Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory stimuli induce expression and release of decay-accelerating factor (DAF), a complement-regulatory protein present on peripheral-blood cells. Therefore, in ulcerative colitis (UC), an inflammatory colonic disease in which activated leukocytes are involved, DAF may be released from leukocytes into the circulation. In this study we compared serum DAF concentrations and surface DAF expression on peripheral-blood cells in patients with UC with disease activity. Peripheral-blood samples were obtained from 60 patients with UC (30 with active and 30 with inactive disease) and 19 healthy volunteers. Serum DAF concentrations were determined by means of immunoassay, and surface DAF expression on blood cells was examined with the use of flow cytometry. Serum DAF concentrations in patients with active disease (mean 48.6 ng/mL) were significantly higher than those in patients whose disease was in remission (33.3 ng/mL; P =.0003) and those in healthy controls (32.3 ng/mL; P =.0007). Surface DAF expression on neutrophils, CD14+ monocytes, and subsets of lymphocytes in patients with active UC was significantly increased compared with that in patients with UC in remission and in healthy controls. The increased serum DAF concentrations and surface DAF expression on leukocyte fractions in patients with active disease fell to significantly lower levels when the disease had gone into remission after medical therapy. Serum DAF concentrations are increased in UC patients in relation to disease activity. The likely source of increased DAF concentrations is peripheral-blood leukocytes that have been activated as part of the UC disease process.
No preview · Article · Apr 2004 · Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expression of decay-accelerating factor (DAF, CD55), a complement-regulatory glycoprotein, is enhanced in colorectal-cancer (CC) cells and colonic epithelium in ulcerative colitis (UC), and stools from these patients contain increased amounts of DAF. Carbohydrate chains of glycoproteins are often altered during malignant transformation or inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether DAF molecules in patients with CC and those with UC differ with respect to oligosaccharide side chains. We analyzed DAF in stools and homogenates of colonic-tissue specimens obtained from patients with CC or UC using solid-phase enzyme-linked assay and Western blotting for reactivity with the lectins Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), wheat-germ agglutinin, peanut agglutinin, and concanavalin A. UEA-I bound to DAF in stools from patients with UC but not in that from the stools of CC patients, as demonstrated on the solid-phase enzyme-linked assay (P <.05, Mann-Whitney U test) and Western blotting. Binding of UEA-I was specifically inhibited by the addition of fucose. The difference in UEA-I reactivity with DAF was observed also in colonic-tissue homogenates from patients with UC and those with CC. DAF expressed in the mucosa and excreted into the stools of UC patients is different from that expressed in CC with regard to UEA-I reactivity. Future studies should be directed toward determining whether a qualitatively unique isoform of DAF is present, of which sugar chains are specific to CC in UC patients.
No preview · Article · Mar 2004 · Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine