[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Simulators have been widely used to train operational skills in urology, how to improve its effectiveness deserves further investigation. In this paper, we evaluated training using a novel transparent anatomic simulator, an opaque model or no simulator training, with regard to post-training ureteroscopy and cystoscopy proficiency.
Anatomically correct transparent and non-transparent endourological simulators were fabricated. Ten experienced urologists provided a preliminary evaluation of the models as teaching tools. 36 first-year medical students underwent identical theoretical training and a 50-point examination of theoretical knowledge. The students were randomly assigned to receive training with the transparent simulator (Group 1), the non-transparent simulator (Group 2) or detailed verbal instruction only (Group 3). 12 days after the training session, the trainees' skills at ureteral stent insertion and removal were evaluated using the Uro-Scopic Trainer and rated on an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale.
The new simulators were successfully fabricated in accordance with the design parameters. Of the ten urologists invited to evaluate the devices, 100 % rated the devices as anatomically accurate, 90 % thought both models were easy to use and 80 % thought they were good ureteroscopy and cystoscopy training tools. The scores on the theoretical knowledge test were comparable among the training groups, and all students were able to perform ureteral stent insertion and removal. The mean OSATS scores of groups 1, 2 and 3 were21.83 ± 3.64, 18.50 ± 4.03 and 15.58 ± 2.23 points, respectively, (p = 0.001).
Simulator training allowed students to achieve higher ureteroscopic and cystoscopic proficiency, and transparent simulators were more effective than non-transparent simulators.
Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · BMC Medical Education
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Growing evidences indicate microRNAs play important roles in cancer development, progression, metastasis and may constitute robust biomarkers for cancer prognosis. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical and functional association of microRNA-20a (miR-20a) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
MiR-20a was detected using Taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional regression analyses were utilized to determine the association of miR-20a with survival of patients. The potential functions of miR-20a on proliferation were evaluated by proliferation and flow cytometry analysis. The direct target gene of miR-20a was also identified by luciferase reporter assays.
MiR-20a was lower in primary HCC than normal liver, and were further decreased in those with post-liver transplantation (LT) HCC recurrence compared with those with non-recurrence (p = 0.001). Patients with lower miR-20a expression had significantly poorer recurrence-free survival (RFS, Log rank p < 0.001) and overall survival (OS, Log rank p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that lower miR-20a was an independent predictor of poor prognosis. MiR-20a restoration could suppress HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells proliferation and induce cell cycle G1 arrest and apoptosis. Subsequent investigations revealed that miR-20a directly targeted myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl-1) and reduced the endogenous protein level of Mcl-1 in HCC cells.
MiR-20a is decreased in HCCs and correlates with HCC recurrence and prognosis. Down-regulation of miR-20a increases the proliferation abilities of HCC cells. Our findings suggest miR-20a may represent a novel potential therapeutic target and biomarker for survival of HCC patients.
Preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the effects of modified pull-through operation (Badenoch operation) on the treatment of posterior urethral stricture.
From September 2001 to December 2010 traditional pull-through operation was Modified for two times in our center. A total of 129 patients with posttraumatic posterior urethral stricture resulting from pelvic fracture injury underwent the modified urethral pull-through operation. Stricture length was 1.5 to 5.3 cm (mean 2.9 cm). Of the patients 43 had undergone at least 1 previous failed management for stricture. In phase 1 (from September 2001 to January 2008), the improving items include: (1) The distal urethral end was stitched and tied to the catheter. (2) As catheter was inserted into bladder and 20 ml water was injected into catheter balloon, the distal urethral end was fixed in the proximal urethra and an overlaying of 1.5 cm was formed between the two ends. (3) Three weeks later, it was tried to insert the catheter to bladder. After the urethral stump necrosis and the catheter separating from the urethra, the catheter was removed. In phase 2 (from February 2008 to December 2010), based on the above, irrigating catheter was used. After the surgery, urethra was irrigated with 0.02% furacillin solution through the catheter 3 times a day. All patients were followed up for at least 6 months. If patients had no conscious dysuria and maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) > 15 ml/s, the treatment was considered successful. All complications were recorded.
In phase 1, the 96 patients (101 times) underwent the procedure. The treatment was successful in 88 patients (success rate 92%). Within 1 to 13 days after removal of the catheter, urethral stricture was recurred in 8 patients. They had to undergo cystostomy once more for 3 to 11 months before reoperation (the 3 patients' reoperation was in phase 2). The 8 cases were treated successfully. In phase 2, 33 patients (total 36 times) underwent the procedure. One patient was failed (success rate 97%). The actual follow-up time is 7 to 93 months (An average of 37.6 months). Qmax is (22 ± 5) ml/s. No complications such as urinary incontinence, erectile pain, urinary shortening happened.
The modified urethral pull-through operation is effective for the surgical treatment of posttraumatic posterior urethral stricture. It has a high success rate with durable long-term results. Complications are few. The procedure is simple, less demanding and especially suitable in patients who had previously undergone failed surgical treatments.
No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During living-donor kidney transplantation, to maximally decrease donor injury, the right kidney with lower glomerular filtration rate often is selected as the donor kidney. However, the renal vein of the right kidney is relatively short for transplantation. The gonadal vein is essentially useless and is easily accessed during the donor nephrectomy.
Seventeen live kidney donors received right kidney nephrectomy for living-donor kidney transplantation. Short renal veins were lengthened by circular anastomosis or spiral anastomosis of longitudinally cut gonadal veins. The renal function of receivers was evaluated using creatinine clearance.
The renal veins were extended by 2.0-2.7 cm with circular anastomosis and 4.1-4.5 cm with spiral anastomosis with an average of 2.5 ± 0.7 cm. Lengthening of renal veins averaged 20.4 ± 4.2 min. All surgeries were successful, significantly reducing difficulty of vascular anastomosis during transplantation. No poor early graft function occurred. No side effects were observed in donors.
When donor renal veins are too short for effective kidney transplantation and may affect reliability of vascular anastomosis, they can be lengthened by using gonadal veins without increasing injury to the donor. Successful extension of donor kidney renal veins expands the indication for right donor kidneys.
No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · World Journal of Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the association between urine transforming growth factor beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) concentration and long-term renal allograft function.
Patients undergoing kidney transplantation between August 1, 1999 and June 30, 2001 and survived for one year with normal renal functions were investigated. The blood and urine TGF-beta(1) concentrations were tested at an interval of at least 6 months. Totally 134 patients completed the 3-year follow up investigation. Correlation between their renal functions (creatinine clearance rates) and their urine relative TGF-beta(1) concentrations 1 year after renal transplantation were determined. Of the 134 renal recipients, 16 were diagnosed to have chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), and their blood and urine TGF-beta(1) concentrations 1 year after renal transplantation were compared with those of the recipients free of CAN.
There was a positive correlation between long-term renal functions (loss of creatinine clearance rates) and in relative concentration of TGF-beta(1) urine 1 year after renal transplantation. The urine TGF-beta(1) concentrations of CAN and CAN-free recipients 1 year after transplantation were 182.7-/+40.2 and 398-/+33.5 pg/mg.Cr, respectively, showing significant differences. The blood TGF-beta(1) concentrations of CAN and CAN-free recipients were comparable (32.1-/+4.7 and 31.9-/+4.8 ng/ml, respectively).
Urine TGF-beta(1) is significantly elevated even before the onset of renal dysfunction in patients with CAN, and urine TGF-beta(1) level in early stage after renal transplantation can help predict long-term renal function.
No preview · Article · Oct 2006 · Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the relation between TGF-beta1 in allograft and chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN).
The levels of urine TGF-beta1 were tested in 146 recipients whose renal function were normal from September 1, 2000 to January 31, 2001. Twenty recipients with the highest level of urine TGF-beta1 were classified in group A, while 20 other recipients with the lowest level of urine TGF-beta1 were classified in group B. In these two groups biopsies were carried out in 14 cases and 12 cases respectively, and TGF-beta1 mRNA in the biopsies was measured by RT-PCR. The levels of TGF-beta1 in the blood were also measured in the two groups. Three years later, the renal function was compared between the two groups. Biopsies were carried out in renal recipients whose creatinine is higher than normal.
The level of TGF-beta1 in the blood showed no significant difference between the two groups; 3 years after transplantation, the loss of renal function in group A was severer than that in group B. The number levels of CAN cases in group A was larger than that in group B. The expression levels of TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta1 mRNA of the allografts were higher in group A than in group B; there were statistically significant differences between the two groups.
The findings suggest that there is an association between TGF-beta1 in kidneys and CAN. The level of urine TGF-beta1 after renal transplantation may predict future renal function.
No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of losartan, a specific angiotensin II receptor blocker, on slowing progression of renal insufficiency in patients with biopsy-proven chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) and the molecular mechanism of the therapy.
Twenty-two renal transplant recipients with biopsy-proven CAN (group A) were treated with losartan within two months after renal dysfunction for at least one year. Losartan was administered at a dose of 50 mg/d. Twenty-four recipients in the same fashion (group B) who never received angiotensin II receptor antagonist were studied as control. The investigation time for each patient lasted one year. Renal functions and concentrations of plasma and urine transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) were compared between the two groups at the initiation and end of the study. In group A, expressions of TGF-betal mRNA and immunofluorescence intensity of TGF-betal protein and pathological alterations in renal biopsy specimens were compared between before losartan therapy and after one year of the therapy.
At the initiation of the investigation, no significant differences were found between group A and group B in clinical data such as donor age, cold-ischemia time, HLA mismatch, levels of creatinine clearance (Ccr), plasma and urine TGF-beta1 concentrations. One year later, 14 of 22 (63.6%) patients showed stable or improved graft functions in group A, and 4 of 24 (16.7%) in group B. The difference was significant (P < 0.05). At the end of the study, urine TGF-betal concentration was 273.8 +/- 84.1 pg/mg x Cr in group A and 457.2 +/- 78.9 pg/mg x Cr in group B. During one year study period, loss of Ccr was 6.6 +/- 5.4 mL/min in group A and 16.2 +/- 9.1 mL/min in group B. Both of the differences were significant between the two groups (P < 0.01). No significant differences were found in plasma TGF-betal concentrations between the four values determined at the initiation and end of the study in the two groups (F = 2.56, P > 0.05). After one year losartan therapy, group A showed a significant decrease in expressions of TGF-beta1 mRNA and TGF-betal protein in renal biopsy specimens [from 1.59 +/- 0.35 to 0.96 +/- 0.27 and from (10.83 +/- 2.33) x l0(6) to (6.41 +/- 1.53) x 10(6), respectively; both P < 0.01], but in light microscopy the histological changes were similar to the first renal biopsy. Losartan was excellently tolerated in all patients in group A. No cases with losartan therapy showed too low blood pressure and other side effects.
This study suggests that losartan have an effect on slowing progression of CAN. Reducing production of intrarenal TGF-betal may play a decisive role in the efficacy of losartan.
No preview · Article · Jan 2006 · Chinese Medical Sciences Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the relation between transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) in allograft and long-term renal function.
Urine TGF-beta1 relative concentration (divided by urine creatinine) was tested in 168 recipients whose renal function was normal between August 1, 2000 and March 31, 2001. Twenty patients with higher urine TGF-beta1 relative concentrations formed Group A, and another 20 patients with lower urine TGF-beta1 formed Group B. In both groups biopsies were carried out in 15 cases and 12 cases respectively, and TGF-beta1 in the biopsis was tested by immunofluorescence. Blood TGF-beta1 concentrations in the 2 groups were also tested. Three years later, the renal function was compared between the 2 groups. Biopsies were carried out in renal recipients whose creatinine was higher than that of the normal.
Blood TGF-beta1 concentrations in the 2 groups were not different significantly; 3 years after the transplantation, there was more loss of renal function and more chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) cases in Group A than in Group B. Expression of TGF-beta1 in the allografts was higher in Group A than in Group B. The differences in the 2 groups were significant.
The findings suggest that the higher expression of TGF-beta1 in the allografts is associated with the lower long-term survival rate of kidney graft. The level of urine TGF-beta1 after the renal transplantation can predict the long-term renal function.
No preview · Article · Jan 2005 · Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To observe the change of sexual function in male kidney transplant recipients.
Sixty married males, aged 26 to 45 years, who had received kidney transplantations at least half a year before and whose serum creatinine (Scr) was under 200 mumol/L, were selected randomly in the study. Sexual functions were reviewed before and after the patients' renal failure and after kidney transplantations. The results were analyzed in Chi-Square test methods.
Their sexual functions, significantly aggravated after renal failure, were improved after kidney transplantations, but failed to return to normal. The recipients had a common worry that their sex lives might affect the renal grafts.
Kidney transplantations significantly improve the sexual functions of these renal failure patients. It is quite necessary to provide sexological guidance to kidney transplant recipients and their spouses.
No preview · Article · Sep 2003 · Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology