Charles Ivester

University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado, United States

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Publications (3)9.57 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Information concerning the effects of genetic variation between different background strains on hemodynamic, morphometric, and gene expression response to hypoxia would be useful. Three strains of mice were kept in hypoxia and phenotyped followed by gene profiling analysis. Among the variables examined, hematocrit, right heart muscularization, and right ventricular systolic pressure showed a strain-specific effect. Increased gene expression of inflammatory, muscle, and angiogenesis genes were seen in all strains, though the specific genes changed varied among groups. These results suggest that different strains use different gene expression mechanisms to adapt to the challenge of chronic hypoxia, resulting in modified phenotypic changes.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2008 · Experimental Lung Research
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by sustained vasoconstriction, with subsequent extracellular matrix (ECM) production and smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation. Changes in the ECM can modulate vasoreactivity and SMC contraction. Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is a hypoxia-inducible beta-galactoside-binding lectin produced by vascular, interstitial, epithelial, and immune cells. Gal-1 regulates SMC differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis via interactions with the ECM, as well as immune system function, and, therefore, likely plays a role in the pathogenesis of PH. We investigated the effects of Gal-1 during hypoxic PH by quantifying 1) Gal-1 expression in response to hypoxia in vitro and in vivo and 2) the effect of Gal-1 gene deletion on the magnitude of the PH response to chronic hypoxia in vivo. By constructing and screening a subtractive library, we found that acute hypoxia increases expression of Gal-1 mRNA in isolated pulmonary mesenchymal cells. In wild-type (WT) mice, Gal-1 immunoreactivity increased after 6 wk of hypoxia. Increased expression of Gal-1 protein was confirmed by quantitative Western analysis. Gal-1 knockout (Gal-1(-/-)) mice showed a decreased PH response, as measured by right ventricular pressure and the ratio of right ventricular to left ventricular + septum wet weight compared with their WT counterparts. However, the number and degree of muscularized vessels increased similarly in WT and Gal-1(-/-) mice. In response to chronic hypoxia, the decrease in factor 8-positive microvessel density was similar in both groups. Vasoreactivity of WT and Gal-1(-/-) mice was tested in vivo and with use of isolated perfused lungs exposed to acute hypoxia. Acute hypoxia caused a significant increase in RV pressure in wild-type and Gal-1(-/-) mice; however, the response of the Gal-1(-/-) mice was greater. These results suggest that Gal-1 influences the contractile response to hypoxia and subsequent remodeling during hypoxia-induced PH, which influences disease progression.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of familial pulmonary arterial hypertension. The type 2 receptor (BMPR2) is required for recognition of all BMPs. Transgenic mice with a smooth muscle cell-targeted mutation in this receptor (SM22-tet-BMPR2(delx4+)) developed increased pulmonary artery pressure, associated with a modest increase in arterial muscularization, after 8 wk of transgene activation (West J, Fagan K, Steudel W, Fouty B, Lane K, Harral J, Hoedt-Miller M, Tada Y, Ozimek J, Tuder R, and Rodman DM. Circ Res 94: 1109-1114, 2004). In the present study, we show that these transgenic mice developed increased right ventricular pressures after only 1 wk of transgene activation, without significant remodeling of the vasculature. We then tested the hypothesis that the increased pulmonary artery pressure due to loss of BMPR2 signaling was mediated by reduced K(V) channel expression. There was decreased expression of K(V)1.1, K(V)1.5, and K(V)4.3 mRNA isolated from whole lung. Western blot confirmed decreased K(V)1.5 protein in these lungs. Human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) treated with recombinant BMP2 had increased K(V)1.5 protein and macroscopic K(V) current density, which was blocked by anti-K(V)1.5 antibody. In vivo, nifedipine, a selective L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, reduced RV systolic pressure in these dominant-negative BMPR2 mice to levels seen in control animals. This suggests that activation of L-type Ca(2+) channels caused by reduced K(V)1.5 mediates increased pulmonary artery pressure in these animals. These studies suggest that BMP regulates K(V) channel expression and that loss of this signaling pathway in PASMC through a mutation in BMPR2 is sufficient to cause pulmonary artery vasoconstriction.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2006 · AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology