[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nosocomial infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Clinical benefits of glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition may occur in hospitalized surgical patients, but efficacy data in different surgical subgroups are lacking. The objective was to determine whether glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition differentially affects nosocomial infection rates in selected subgroups of SICU patients.
This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled study of alanyl-glutamine dipeptide-supplemented parenteral nutrition in SICU patients requiring parenteral nutrition and SICU care after surgery for pancreatic necrosis, cardiac, vascular, or colonic surgery. Subjects (n = 59) received isocaloric/isonitrogenous parenteral nutrition, providing 1.5 g/kg/d standard glutamine-free amino acids (STD-PN) or 1.0 g/kg/d standard amino acids + 0.5 g/kg/d glutamine dipeptide (GLN-PN). Enteral feedings were advanced as tolerated. Nosocomial infections were determined until hospital discharge.
Baseline clinical/metabolic data were similar between groups. Plasma glutamine concentrations were low in all groups and were increased by GLN-PN. GLN-PN did not alter infection rates after pancreatic necrosis surgery (17 STD-PN and 15 GLN-PN patients). In nonpancreatic surgery patients (12 STD-PN and 15 GLN-PN), GLN-PN was associated with significantly decreased total nosocomial infections (STD-PN 36 vs GLN-PN 13, P < .030), bloodstream infections (7 vs 0, P < .01), pneumonias (16 vs 6, P < .05), and infections attributed to Staphylococcus aureus (P < .01), fungi, and enteric Gram-negative bacteria (each P < .05).
Glutamine dipeptide-supplemented parenteral nutrition did not alter infection rates following pancreatic necrosis surgery but significantly decreased infections in SICU patients after cardiac, vascular, and colonic surgery.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2008 · Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of intravenous erythromycin as a method to facilitate feeding tube placement into the small intestine in critically ill patients. DESIGN Double blind, randomized, controlled trial. SETTING Medical and surgical intensive care units in an academic medical center. PATIENTS Prospective cohort of 36 consecutive adults requiring intensive care unit care and enteral tube feeding for nutritional support. INTERVENTION Infusion of a single dose of intravenous erythromycin (500 mg) or saline before placement of 10-Fr feeding tubes using a standardized active bedside protocol. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS We determined the success rate of feeding tube placement into or beyond the second portion of the duodenum and the time required for this procedure by experienced nurses. The feeding tube was considered to be postpyloric when the tip was in the second portion of the duodenum or beyond. The predictive value of a serial step-up in gastrointestinal aspirate pH from < or = 5.0 to > or = 6.0 was also determined. Use of intravenous erythromycin significantly improved the rate of feeding tube placement into the duodenum or jejunum (erythromycin group, 13 of 14 patients or 93% vs. the control group, 12 of 22 patients or 55%; p < .03). Erythromycin administration also significantly decreased the procedure time from 25 +/- 3 to 15 +/- 2 mins (p < .04). Feeding tube placement into either duodenum or jejunum was confirmed in all 18 patients with a pH step-up from < or = 5.0 to > or = 6.0. CONCLUSION: A single bolus dose of intravenous erythromycin facilitates active bedside placement of postpyloric feeding tubes in critically ill adult patients.
No preview · Article · Jan 2003 · Critical Care Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy and radiation therapy result in increased free radical formation and depletion of tissue antioxidants. It is not known whether parenteral nutrition (PN) administered during bone marrow transplantation (BMT) supports systemic antioxidant status.
The aims of the study were to determine 1) whether high-dose chemotherapy decreases concentrations of major circulating antioxidants in patients undergoing BMT and 2) whether administration of standard PN maintains systemic antioxidant concentrations compared with PN containing micronutrients and minimal lipids alone.
Twenty-four BMT patients were randomly assigned to receive either standard PN containing conventional amounts of dextrose, amino acids, micronutrients, and lipid (120 kJ/d) or a solution containing only micronutrients (identical to those in standard PN) and a small amount of lipid (12 kJ/d). Plasma antioxidant status was measured before conditioning therapy and serially at days 1, 3, 7, 10, and 14 after BMT.
Plasma glutathione (GSH) and alpha- and gamma-tocopherol concentrations decreased and the GSH redox state became more oxidized after conditioning chemotherapy. Plasma cysteine concentrations were unchanged, whereas cystine concentrations increased. Plasma vitamin C and zinc concentrations and GSH peroxidase activity increased over time. Plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations were lower in patients given standard PN. There were no differences in other plasma antioxidants between groups.
A significant decline in GSH-glutathione disulfide, cysteine-cystine, and vitamin E status occurs after chemotherapy and BMT. Standard PN does not improve antioxidant status compared with administration of micronutrients alone. Further evaluation of PN formulations to support patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and BMT are needed.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2000 · American Journal of Clinical Nutrition