[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abrin A chain, alpha-sarcin, mitogillin, restrictocin and Phytolacca americana protein (PAP) all effectively inhibited protein synthesis in picornavirus-infected cells, although with different activities. The most powerful inhibitor was alpha-sarcin; 0.1 μM caused over 90% inhibition in virus-infected cells, whereas no inhibition of translation was observed in uninfected cells even at concentrations of 40 μM alpha-sarcin. Inhibition depended on the multiplicity of infection and concentration of toxin. Although the blockade of protein synthesis by alpha-sarcin was maximal when the toxin was added simultaneously with the virus, a drastic inhibition was also observed if this addition was made after virus entry, suggesting that the toxin passes into the cell once membrane permeability has been modified by viral infection. Inhibitors of transcription and translation did not suppress the entry of alpha-sarcin into the cell. This could indicate that a virion component is involved in the permeabilization of the cell to the toxin. However, heat-inactivated virions did not promote the permeabilization of the cell to alpha-sarcin. Our efforts to detect a toxin-virus complex were unsuccessful. Similar results were obtained with HeLa cells infected by adenovirus type 5 and with BHK cells infected by Semliki Forest virus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The extent of the inhibitory effect of ricin in polyphenylalanine synthesis by eukaryotic ribosomes is strongly dependent upon the concentration of ribosomes and the elongation factors EF 1 and EF2. Maximal inhibition by ricin, in this assay is observed when either ribosomes or the two elongation factors are added under limiting conditions, whereas ricin-treated ribosomes support protein synthesis at saturating concentrations of elongation factors and ribosomes. Similarly, the enzymatic binding of Phe-tRNA to ribosomes is drastically blocked in ricin-treated ribosomes when low EF 1 concentrations are added to the reaction mixture, but there is no inhibition when EF 1 is at saturating concentrations. Furthermore, formation of the complex EF 2-guanosine triphosphate-ribosome, using free ribosomes pretreated with ricin, is strongly inhibited at limiting concentrations of EF2, but is not affected at saturating concentrations of this factor. However, ricin does not inhibit the EF 2-dependent translocation of peptidyl-tRNA by polysomes, although the toxin is very active in preventing amino acid incorporation by polysomes. Our results suggest that the damaging effect of ricin on the ribosome causes a decreased affinity for both elongation factors EF 1 and EF 2. Thus, the toxin inhibits the enzymatic binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to ribosomes. The lack of inhibition of translocation by ricin suggests that the toxin cannot interact with ribosomes with substrate bound to the acceptor site. Essentially similar results are observed with ricin, abrin, ricin A chain, abrin A chain, and ricinus agglutinin A chain. A possible effect of the toxins on initiation and/or termination is further discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inactivation of rabbit reticulocyte ribosomes by abrin and ricin A-chains was studied by incubating ribosomes with the A-chains and testing, after various periods of time, aliquots of the ribosomes for their ability to polymerize phenylalanine.
The presence of elongation factor 2 (EF-2) reduced the rate of inactivation of ribosomes by the A-chains. The protective effect of EF-2 was strongly enhanced by GTP and, to a lesser extent, also by GDP or dGTP. Other nucleotides had no demonstrable effect.
Much less protection was found after binding of Phe-tRNA to ribosomes in the presence of EF-1 (enzymic binding) or in the presence of high Mg2+ concentration (non-enzymic binding).
The data indicate that when EF-2 binds to the ribosomes it completely or partially covers the target site for abrin and ricin A-chains. The possibility that EF-1 also binds to this site is discussed
Preview · Article · Jun 1976 · European Journal of Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mode and site of action of inhibitors of translation (initiation, elongation and termination of protein synthesis) in eukaryotic systems is reviewed. The isolation and characterization of a factor is described that binds Ac-Phe-tRNA to form a complex made up of binding factors, Ac-Phe-tRNA, and ribosome. The binding of Ac-Phe-tRNA probably occurs at the ribosomal site involved in the binding of the initiator substrate Met-tRNAF. The effect of inhibitors of the intitiation phase of protein synthesis on the nonenzymic Ac-Phe-tRNA binding to ribosomes is investigated. The two sites translocation model for translation in eukaryotic cells is presented and the effects of inhibitors on the various steps of protein synthesis are determined empirically. The site of action of inhibitors of peptide bond formation at the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center is elucidated. The action of inhibitors of translocation is sutdied in model cell-free systems from human cells. In addition, a number of methylxanthines are shown to enhance the elongation phase in polypeptide synthesis by stimulating the enzymic binding of aminoacyl-tRNA. The effect of caffeine, theophylline and its derivatives are shown to be fairly specific and dependent on the ribosome concentration. Aminophylline is shown to have a similar effect but also enhances aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase activity at low Mg++ concentrations, probably displacing the optimal concentration of Mg++ in the reaction. This second effect of aminophylline appears to be due to the ethylenediamine moiety of aminophylline since it is also observed in the presence of different polyamines but not in the presence of caffeine or theophylline.
No preview · Article · Mar 1976 · Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A sensitive test system for toxin-treated ribosomes was worked out by treating rabbit reticulocyte ribosomes with abrin A-chain, ricin A-chain or ricinus agglutinin A-chain, adding neutralizing amounts of specific antitoxins and testing for polyphenylalanine-synthesizing activity in a system where the concentration of elongation factors and ribosomes were varied. The strongest inhibition was obtained in the presence of low concentrations of elongation factor 2 (EF-2).
The activity of the ribosomes decreased with time of incubation with the toxin A-chains. Addition of anti-toxins stopped further inactivation. In systems containing untreated and toxin-treated ribosomes the ability to polymerize phenylalanine was proportional to the concentration of untreated ribosomes.
There was a linear relationship between toxin A-chain concentration and the number of ribosomes inactivated per minute. The inactivation rate increased with temperature, and the estimated activation energy was 10.6 kcal (44.3 kJ). Linewaver-Burk plots of the data obtained by incubating various ribosome concentrations with toxins indicated a molecular activity of about 1500 ribosomes/minute for abrin and ricin A-chains and 100 ribosomes/minute for ricinus agglutinin A-chain. The apparent Michaelis constant was 0.1-0.2 μM for all three A-chains. The activity of the A-chains in the intact cell is discussed.
Preview · Article · Jan 1976 · European Journal of Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of ricin on the different steps of the elongation cycle of protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte cell-free system are studied in this paper. The toxin most probably acts by catalytically inactivating the ribosomes, since a single molecule of the toxin can inactivate 300 ribosomes for poly(U)-directed phenylalanine incorporation. The effect of the toxin on the ribosome is irreversible. Ricin specifically inhibits elongation-factor-1-dependent aminoacyl-tRNA binding to ribosomes but has no effect on the non-enzymic binding of aminoacyl-tRNA. Ricin also inhibits formation of the complex elongation-factor-2 - ribosome - nucleotide with GTP, GDP or GMP-P(CH2)P. However, the toxin has no effect on translocation. These apparently conflicting results are discussed in this study.
Preview · Article · Jul 1975 · European Journal of Biochemistry